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@MastersThesis{Maciel:2020:InHiTr,
               author = "Maciel, Amanda Lopes",
                title = "Investiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o da hip{\'o}tese de transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         florestal no Vale do Ribeira (SP/PR) usando imagens de 
                         sensoriamento remoto e dados 
                         agr{\'{\i}}colas/demogr{\'a}ficos",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2020",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2020-06-29",
             keywords = "an{\'a}lise temporal, censos e estat{\'{\i}}sticas 
                         agr{\'{\i}}colas/demogr{\'a}ficas, an{\'a}lise de fatores 
                         biof{\'{\i}}sicos e socioecon{\^o}micos, 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal, mudan{\c{c}}a de uso e 
                         cobertura da terra, temporal analyses, census and 
                         agricultural/demographic statistics, analysis of biophysics and 
                         socioeconomic factors, forest regeneration, land-use cover 
                         change.",
             abstract = "A expans{\~a}o da atividade agr{\'{\i}}cola tem sido 
                         majoritariamente respons{\'a}vel pela perda de mais de 90% da 
                         cobertura florestal original do bioma Mata Atl{\^a}ntica. 
                         Evid{\^e}ncias sugerem a recupera{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o em regi{\~o}es do bioma em revers{\~a}o 
                         {\`a}s tend{\^e}ncias do desmatamento. Em reconhecimento {\`a} 
                         import{\^a}ncia de relacionar os processos respons{\'a}veis 
                         pelas mudan{\c{c}}as do uso da terra, estudos t{\^e}m utilizado 
                         t{\'e}cnicas de sensoriamento remoto em conjunto {\`a}s 
                         estat{\'{\i}}sticas agr{\'{\i}}colas e demogr{\'a}ficas, no 
                         intuito de investigar a associa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de mudan{\c{c}}as 
                         {\`a} cobertura florestal. Considere-se regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         como sendo a reconstitui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espont{\^a}nea e natural 
                         de um ambiente ap{\'o}s degrada{\c{c}}{\~a}o ambiental e o 
                         reflorestamento, o plantio de florestas para fins comerciais, como 
                         pinus e eucalipto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e 
                         mapear as {\'a}reas de regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o, reflorestamento e 
                         remanescentes da regi{\~a}o do Vale do Ribeira (SP/PR) em uma 
                         s{\'e}rie temporal de 1985 a 2017, a fim de investigar a 
                         hip{\'o}tese de transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal na regi{\~a}o. 
                         Foram utilizados o algoritmo de classifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o Compound 
                         Maximum Likelihood, desenvolvido para minimizar erros comuns 
                         advindos de classifica{\c{c}}{\~o}es de imagens de uma 
                         s{\'e}rie temporal, e dados dos censos e estat{\'{\i}}sticas 
                         agr{\'{\i}}colas/demogr{\'a}ficas. Os resultados apontaram que 
                         entre 1985 e 2017 a {\'a}rea total dos fragmentos de 
                         remanescentes de Mata Atl{\^a}ntica na regi{\~a}o decresceu 31%, 
                         enquanto a {\'a}rea total de reflorestamento e de 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o aumentou 104% (65,5 mil ha) e 284% (410 
                         mil ha), respectivamente. A an{\'a}lise da 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial dos fragmentos revelou que a 
                         maior taxa de desmatamento, cerca de 60%, ocorreu em {\'a}reas de 
                         menor declividade (<8%), e que as {\'a}reas reflorestadas 
                         concentraram-se em regi{\~o}es de maiores declividades (8-20%). 
                         Aproximadamente 93% dos fragmentos regenerados estavam situados em 
                         {\'a}reas de at{\'e} 20% de declividade, sugerindo que a 
                         preserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o e recupera{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi devido ao 
                         cumprimento do C{\'o}digo Florestal (Lei nš 12.651/2012). 
                         Considerando-se a distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o das coberturas 
                         florestais dentro das Unidades de Conserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o, a 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal representou 30% do ganho 
                         l{\'{\i}}quido florestal total no Vale do Ribeira. Ao que se 
                         refere {\`a} distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos fragmentos florestais 
                         em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} dist{\^a}ncia das principais 
                         rodovias, cerca de 18% da regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o centralizaram-se 
                         em at{\'e} 1000 m de dist{\^a}ncia em 1985, enquanto em 2017, 
                         esse valor ultrapassa 22%, sugerindo um padr{\~a}o de 
                         difus{\~a}o ao longo das estradas nas {\'u}ltimas d{\'e}cadas. 
                         A an{\'a}lise dos censos e estat{\'{\i}}sticas 
                         agr{\'{\i}}colas/demogr{\'a}ficas sugere que a {\'a}rea de 
                         estudo inclui diferentes associa{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre processos 
                         de mudan{\c{c}}as de cobertura florestal, demogr{\'a}ficos e de 
                         atividades econ{\^o}micas, entre os quais: i) munic{\'{\i}}pios 
                         com processos de industrializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         urbaniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o incipientes, o reflorestamento {\'e} um 
                         processo importante para a transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal; ii) 
                         munic{\'{\i}}pios com diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o das {\'a}reas 
                         cultivadas, diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o rural, 
                         aumento do rendimento m{\'e}dio agr{\'{\i}}cola e aumento da 
                         renda associada {\`a} agricultura, a regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o se 
                         estabelece como um processo importante para a 
                         transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal. Conclui-se que o aumento 
                         l{\'{\i}}quido de aproximadamente 6% na cobertura florestal 
                         total entre o per{\'{\i}}odo 1985-2017 sugere a ocorr{\^e}ncia 
                         de transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal no Vale do Ribeira, explicada 
                         em decorr{\^e}ncia das concep{\c{c}}{\~o}es do ajuste 
                         agr{\'{\i}}cola e de crescimento econ{\^o}mico. ABSTRACT: The 
                         expansion of agricultural activity has been the major cause of 
                         loss of more than 90% of the original forest cover of Atlantic 
                         Forest biome. Evidences suggests a recovery in regions of the 
                         biome reversing deforestation trends. The association of the main 
                         responsible processes of land-use changes, studies have used 
                         remote sensing techniques with agricultural and demographic 
                         statistics, in order to investigate the association of forest 
                         cover changes. Consider regeneration as the spontaneous and 
                         natural reconstitution of a region after an environmental 
                         degradation and the reforestation, the forest plantation for 
                         commercial purposes, like pine e eucalyptus. This work aimed to 
                         identify and map regeneration, reforestation and forest remnant 
                         areas in Ribeira Valley SP/PR - Brazil from 1985 to 2017, in order 
                         to investigate the forest transition hypothesis in the region. The 
                         algorithm Compound Maximum Likelihood, developed to minimize 
                         common errors from multitemporal series classifications, and 
                         census and agricultural/demographic statistic data were used. The 
                         results showed that between 1985 and 2017, the total area of 
                         remaining Atlantic Forest fragments decreased by 31%, while 
                         reforestation and regeneration areas increased 104% (65.5 thousand 
                         ha) and 284% (410 thousand ha), respectively. The analysis of 
                         spatial distribution of forest fragments revealed that the high 
                         rate of deforestation, approximately 60%, occurred in low 
                         declivity areas (<8%), and the reforested patches were 
                         concentrated in regions of high declivity (8 - 20%). Almost 93% of 
                         the regenerated fragments were located in places of up to 20% 
                         slope, which indicates the preservation and recovery were due to 
                         the Forest Code (Law nš 12.651/2012). Considering the distribution 
                         of forest cover in Conservation Units, the forest regeneration 
                         represented 30% of total net forest gain in Ribeira Valley. 
                         Regarding the distribution of forest fragments in relation to the 
                         distance from the main highways, almost 18% of the regeneration 
                         area were concentrated until 1000 m in 1985, while in 2017 this 
                         value overpasses 22%, suggesting the pattern of diffusion along 
                         highways in recent decades. The analysis of census and 
                         agricultural/demographic statistics suggests that the study area 
                         includes different associations between changing processes of 
                         forest cover, demographics and economic activities, among them: i) 
                         cities with relevant industrialization and urbanization processes, 
                         reforestation is an important process for the forest transition; 
                         ii) cities with decrease in cultivated areas, decrease in the 
                         rural population, increase in the average agricultural income and 
                         an increase in income based on agriculture, regeneration is 
                         established as an important process for the forest transition. 
                         Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of approximately 6% in 
                         total forest coverage between the period 1985-2017 suggests the 
                         occurrence of forest transition in Ribeira Valley, due to the 
                         predictions of agricultural adjustment and economic improviment.",
            committee = "Renn{\'o}, Camilo Daleles (presidente) and Alves, Diogenes Salas 
                         (orientador) and Sant'Anna, Sidnei Jo{\~a}o Siqueira (orientador) 
                         and Farinaci, Juliana Sampaio",
         englishtitle = "Valley SP/PR - Brazil through remote sensing images and 
                         agricultural/demographic data",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "133",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/42PHUMB",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/42PHUMB",
           targetfile = "publicacao_FA provisoria.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2021, Jan. 22"
}


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