author = "Souza, Everaldo B. De and Rocha, Edson J. P. Da",
          affiliation = "Divis{\~a}o de Meteorologia, SIPAM/ATECH, Manaus-AM, Brasil and 
                         Departamento de Meteorologia, UFPa, Bel{\'e}m-PA, Brasil",
                title = "On the diurnal variability of rainfall in eastern amazonia along 
                         atlantic coast during rainy season",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2006",
               editor = "Vera, Carolina and Nobre, Carlos",
                pages = "1203--1207",
         organization = "International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and 
                         Oceanography, 8. (ICSHMO).",
            publisher = "American Meteorological Society (AMS)",
              address = "45 Beacon Hill Road, Boston, MA, USA",
             keywords = "eastern Amazonia, diurnal cycle, precipitation, ITCZ.",
             abstract = "The knowledge of variation of precipitation over short timescales, 
                         such as the diurnal cycle, is essential in understanding of the 
                         physics of tropical atmosphere. The diurnal variability of 
                         rainfall in particular over the Amazonia has been previously 
                         documented using high temporal resolution data collected in field 
                         experiments, like ABRACOS (Anglo Brazilian Climate Observation 
                         Study) and LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in 
                         Amazonia). Previous works that used these data evidenced rainfall 
                         maxima in southwest and central Amazonia (Ji-Paran{\'a} and 
                         Manaus) in late afternoon, while in eastern Amazonia (Marab{\'a}) 
                         there is a maximum in the morning. On the other hand, there have 
                         been few investigations on the diurnal variability of rainfall in 
                         particular over eastern Amazonia along Atlantic coast. In the 
                         present work, five years (2001-2005) of continuous rainfall data 
                         collected by Mil{\^e}nioLBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere 
                         Experiment in Amazonia) station in Bragan{\c{c}}a (00 50' S, 46 
                         38' W) are used in order to describe coherent diurnal variation of 
                         rainfall in eastern Amazonia off Atlantic coast during rainy 
                         season (January to May). The 5-yr average of accumulation of 
                         rainfall in each 6 h (06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 LST) evidenced 
                         a maximum peak during morning and a sharp minimum in the 
                         afternoon. A significant diurnal cycle related to Intertropical 
                         Convergence Zone activity in the equatorial Atlantic is pointed 
                         out as the main mechanism regulator of diurnal pluviometric 
                         variability in coastal region along Par{\'a} and Amap{\'a} 
                         states. March presents highest frequency of rainy days following 
                         by April and February. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of 
                         rainfall considering different intensity ranges (0.1 to 5, 5.1 to 
                         10, 10.1 to 25, 25.1 to 50, 50.1 to 75, 75.1 to 100 and > 100 mm) 
                         is documented for each month and period of diurnal cycle. An 
                         outstanding result evidenced is frequency distribution of events 
                         with rainfall less than 5 mm, which explain the largest 
                         proportional contribution of the rainfall total observed during 
                         rainy season that reach 21.6% in January, 24.5% in May, 29.8% in 
                         February, 33.2% in April and 36% in March.",
  conference-location = "Foz do Igua{\c{c}}u",
      conference-year = "24-28 Apr. 2006",
             language = "en",
         organisation = "American Meteorological Society (AMS)",
                  ibi = "cptec.inpe.br/adm_conf/2005/",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/cptec.inpe.br/adm_conf/2005/",
           targetfile = "1203-1208.pdf",
                 type = "Monsoon systems and continental rainfall",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"