author = "Cardoso, Manoel and Hurtt, George and Moore, Berrien and Nobre, 
                         Carlos Afonso and Bain, Heather",
          affiliation = "{CPTEC-INPE-Cachoeira Paulista-12630-000-SP-Brasil}",
                title = "Passive ground-based analyses for interpreting satellite fire data 
                         - Applications to AVHRR and MODIS active fire detections in 
            booktitle = "Anais...",
                 year = "2004",
         organization = "Conferencia Cientifica do LBA, 3.",
             abstract = "Because of their broad spatial and temporal coverage, satellites 
                         are very important for providing information on fire activity in 
                         Amazonia. A key to the application of these tools for 
                         environmental studies is the accurate interpretation of the data 
                         they provide. Examples of factors that should be considered 
                         include temporal sampling, cloud coverage, fire intensity below 
                         detection, and confounding reflective surfaces. To enhance the 
                         interpretation of satellite data for this region, we collected 
                         ground-based information on fire activity and statistically 
                         related them to corresponding satellite-based data. Ground-based 
                         data were collected in Para in 2001 and in Mato Grosso in 2002 
                         using a simple and passive method. Corresponding fire data from 
                         AVHRR and MODIS were then obtained and related to the ground-based 
                         data using error matrixes. Results from these analyses indicate 
                         that the total accuracy for both fire products was very high and 
                         dominated by accurate non-fire detection. Fire-detection accuracy 
                         was lower, and errors of commission were less than errors of 
                         omission. Satellite fire products differed in the frequency of 
                         omission and commission errors for fires. Omission errors were 
                         lower for AVHRR, and commission errors were lower for MODIS. 
                         Preliminary attribution studies suggest that sampling time, fire 
                         size and land cover are important complicating factors for active 
                         fire detection in the region. Results from this study show that 
                         passive ground-based analyses can substantially contribute to the 
                         interpretation of satellite fire data.",
  conference-location = "Brasilia",
      conference-year = "27-29 jul.",
             language = "en",
         organisation = "LBA",
           targetfile = "Cardoso_Nobre_LBA.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"