author = "Ulke, Ana Graciela and Longo, Karla M. and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro 
                title = "Biomass Burning in South America: Transport Patterns and Impacts",
            booktitle = "Biomass - Detection, Production and Usage",
            publisher = "Intech",
                 year = "2011",
               editor = "Matovic, Darko",
                pages = "337--408",
              address = "Rijeka",
             keywords = "biomass, production, Geology, Geophysics.",
             abstract = "The Andes Mountains barrier and the interaction with the easterly 
                         trade winds, and the flow associated to the South Atlantic 
                         Subtropical High (SASH) are responsible of a key feature of the 
                         low-level atmospheric circulation and climate: the so called South 
                         American Low Level Jet (SALLJ). The SALLJ is a wind maximum 
                         immersed in a pole-ward and moist current with a cross stream mean 
                         dimension in the mesoscale, which has been identified as an 
                         efficient dynamical mechanism to transport heat and humidity from 
                         tropical to subtropical latitudes. The SALLJEX (South American Low 
                         Level Jet Experiment) field campaign provided a unique data set 
                         for the study and better understanding of the SALLJ (Vera et al., 
                         2006). The SALLJ feeds and controls the life cycle of the 
                         mesoscale convective systems over an area that includes the Del 
                         Plata basin, and accounts for an important fraction of the 
                         precipitation in southern South America, thus influencing the 
                         water balance in the region (Nicolini et al., 2002; Saulo et al., 
                         2000). The SALLJ has also being pointed as an important agent to 
                         transport and mix other biogeochemical components (Paegle, 1998). 
                         The orographic control of the Andes favouring the poleward flow 
                         causes the persistency of the SALLJ all year round, being only 
                         episodically interrupted by mid-latitude transient systems 
                         arriving in the subtropical South America (SA) (James \& 
                         Anderson, 1984; Nogues- Paegle et al., 1998). While during the 
                         summer this flow has a net poleward component, in the winter it 
                         has an eastward tendency up in the mid-latitudes, with an outflow 
                         toward the South Atlantic Ocean broadly ranging from 20 S to 40 
                         S, strongly depending on the position of the SASH. Nogues-Paegle 
                         \& Mo (1997) found an intraseasonal meridional seesaw of dry and 
                         wet conditions over tropical and subtropical South America during 
                         austral summer in which the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) 
                         and the low-level stream intensify alternatively. Over the central 
                         and north bands of SA during the winter, the climate is strongly 
                         influenced by the northward motion of the Inter-tropical 
                         Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the westward displacement of SASH, 
                         composing a scenario of a low levels high pressure system over the 
                         continent, with light winds and most of the convection being 
                         shifted to the northern part of the Amazon and very little 
          affiliation = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), 1Departamento de 
                         Ciencias de la Atm{\'o}sfera y los Oc{\'e}anos, Facultad de 
                         Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos 
                         Aires and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                 isbn = "978-953-307-492-4",
                label = "lattes: 9873289111461387 3 UlkeLongFrei:2011:TrPaAn",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "
                  url = "http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/biomass-burning-in-south-america-transport-patterns-and-impacts",
               volume = "cap. 9",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"