author = "Oliveira, Rog{\'e}rio de Moraes and Vieira, Maxson Souza and 
                         Ueda, M{\'a}rio and T{\'o}th, A",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and CRC HAS, 
                         Inst Mat \& Environm Chem, Budapest, Hungary.",
                title = "Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si by means of plasma immersion 
                         ion implantation and deposition",
              journal = "Vacuum",
                 year = "2013",
               volume = "89",
               number = "1",
                pages = "163--167",
                month = "Mar.",
                 note = "17th International Conference on Surface Modification of Materials 
                         by Ion Beams (SMMIB), Harbin, PEOPLES R CHINA, SEP 13-17, 2011",
             keywords = "AFM image, Argon glow discharges, Coated surface, Composition 
                         analysis, DC voltage, Depth analysis, Nanoscale ranges, 
                         Nanothorns, Negative voltage, Oxide cathode, Plasma based ion 
                         implantation and deposition, Plasma immersion ion implantation and 
                         deposition, Plasma particles, Room temperature, Sample holders, Si 
                         substrates, Si surfaces, UV- and, Visible photoluminescence, XRD, 
                         Zinc oxide (ZnO), Zn atoms, Zn deposition, ZnO, ZnO nanoparticles, 
                         ZnO nanostructures, ZnO on Si, Atomic force microscopy, Electric 
                         potential, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, Glow discharges, Ion 
                         implantation, Nanostructures, Photoelectrons, Photoluminescence, 
                         Photoluminescence spectroscopy, Plasma deposition, Scanning 
                         electron microscopy, Silicon, Stoichiometry, Thermionic emission, 
                         X ray diffraction, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Zinc, Zinc 
             abstract = "Crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been grown on Si 
                         substrates by means of Plasma Based Ion Implantation and 
                         Deposition (PIII\&D) at a temperature of about 300 C and in the 
                         presence of an argon glow discharge. In the process a crucible 
                         filled with small pieces of metallic zinc plays the role of the 
                         anode of the discharge itself, being polarized by positive DC 
                         voltage of about 400 V. Electrons produced by thermionic emission 
                         by an oxide cathode (Ba, Sr, Ca)O impact this crucible, causing 
                         its heating and vaporization of Zn. Partial ionization of Zn atoms 
                         takes place due to collisions with plasma particles. High negative 
                         voltage pulses (7 kV/40 ms/250 Hz) applied to the sample holder 
                         causes the implantation of metallic zinc into Si surface, while Zn 
                         deposition happens between pulses. After annealing at 700 C, 
                         strong UV and various visible photoluminescence bands are observed 
                         at room temperature, as well as the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. 
                         The coated surface was characterized in detail using X-ray 
                         diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy 
                         dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 
                         atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) 
                         spectroscopy. XRD indicated the presence of only ZnO peaks after 
                         annealing. The composition analysis by EDS revealed distinct Zn/O 
                         stoichiometry relation depending on the conditions of the process. 
                         AFM images showed the formation of columns in the nanoscale range. 
                         Topography viewed by SEM showed the formation of structures 
                         similar to cactus with nanothorns. Depth analysis performed by XPS 
                         indicated an increase of concentration of metallic Zn with 
                         increasing depth and the exclusive presence of ZnO for outer 
                         regions. PIII\&D allowed to growing nanostructures of ZnO on Si 
                         without the need of a buffer layer.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.vacuum.2012.03.049",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2012.03.049",
                 issn = "0042-207X",
                label = "lattes: 4955583664355437 2 OliveiraVieiUeda:2012:GrZnNa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si by means of plasma immersion 
                         ion implantation and deposition.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"