author = "Riehl, R{\'o}ger Ribeiro and Santos, Nadjara dos",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Water-copper nanofluid application in an open loop pulsating heat 
              journal = "Applied Thermal Engineering",
                 year = "2012",
               volume = "42",
                pages = "6--10",
                month = "Set.",
             keywords = "pulsating heat pipe, heat transfer, nanofluid, nanoparticles.",
             abstract = "Several investigations have pointed the operational behavior of 
                         passive thermal control devices such as loop heat pipes (LHPs) and 
                         pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in the past, which have cleared many 
                         points related to their design. However, an interesting aspect 
                         related to passive thermal control devices that operate by means 
                         of capillary forces to pump the working fluid have gained 
                         attention during the last years, is in regard to the use of 
                         nanofluids on such devices. Nanofluids are known as regular fluids 
                         with addition of solid nanoparticles with sizes (diameter) below 
                         40 nm, which are used to enhance the working fluid's thermal 
                         performance by enhancing its thermal conductivity. Previous works 
                         have demonstrated that the liquid's thermal conductivity can be 
                         enhanced by 20% if nanoparticles are added on a concentration of 
                         5% by mass. PHPs operate by the dynamics of slug/plug formation, 
                         removing heat from a high temperature source and dissipating in a 
                         low temperature sink, and are highly influenced by the bubble 
                         critical diameter related to a specific working fluid. Thus, an 
                         experimental open loop PHP (OLPHP) was tested with water-copper 
                         nanofluid, with an addition of 5% by mass of copper nanoparticles. 
                         Improvements on the overall device's operation have been observed 
                         when using the nanofluid with lower temperatures, as well as a 
                         direct influence on the thermal conductances throughout the PHP.  
                         2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.01.017",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.01.017",
                 issn = "1359-4311",
                label = "lattes: 3396317350075844 1 RiehlSant:2012:WaNaAp",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Riehl\&Santos_2012.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"