author = "Lima, Andr{\'e} and Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire and Arag{\~a}o, 
                         Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de and Feitas, Ramon Morais de and 
                         Adami, Marcos and Formaggio, Ant{\^o}nio Roberto and Shimabukuro, 
                         Yosio Edemir",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Landscape and 
                         Ecosystem Dynamics Group, Department of Geography, School of Life 
                         and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Amory Building, 
                         Rennes Drive, Exeter and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Land use and land cover changes determine the spatial relationship 
                         between fire and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon",
              journal = "Applied Geography",
                 year = "2012",
               volume = "34",
                pages = "239--246",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "deforestation, forest fire, land cover, land use change, Landsat 
                         thematic mapper, rainforest, remote sensing, satellite imagery, 
                         spatial analysis, tropical forest, Amazonia, Brazil, Mato Grosso, 
             abstract = "An increased frequency of droughts is predicted for the Amazon 
                         rainforest in the 21st century, which, combined with 
                         deforestation, could exacerbate \fire occurrence in the 
                         region. There is ample evidence of the association between 
                         \fire use and deforestation in the land use and land cover 
                         change (LULCC) processes occurring in the Amazon region, but there 
                         are no studies on the actual spatial structuring and spatial 
                         association between these events. The present study evaluates the 
                         existence of such relationships through the use of remotely sensed 
                         data and spatial analysis techniques for an active deforestation 
                         frontier covering portions of the states of Rond{\^o}nia and Mato 
                         Grosso in the Brazilian Amazon. A map of burn scars for the year 
                         2005 was produced using a Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) 
                         transformation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, with 
                         subsequent unsupervised classi\fication and manual editing. 
                         Annual and aggregated maps of deforested areas up to 2005, 
                         produced by the Brazilian Amazon Deforestation Estimation Project 
                         (PRODES), were also used. The amount of burn scar occurrences 
                         inside both recent (2002e2005) and old (prior to 2002) deforested 
                         areas was then determined, and the spatial structure of both 
                         variables was assessed using Mantel tests for multiple aggregation 
                         scales. A partial Mantel test was also used to test the spatial 
                         correlation between burn scars and deforested areas, accounting 
                         for the existence of spatial structure. The results show that 
                         there is a signi\ficant spatial association between recent 
                         deforestation and the occurrence of \fires. In addition, we 
                         identi\fied a large amount of burned areas (w55%) within 
                         older deforested areas. These results highlight the following: 1) 
                         the direct role of \fire in the land use and land cover 
                         change processes in the Brazilian Amazon, and 2) that \fire 
                         also widely affects previously degraded vegetation, with 
                         signi\ficant implications for current estimates of forest 
                         \fire-associated atmospheric carbon emission in the Amazon 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.10.013",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.10.013",
                 issn = "0143-6228",
                label = "lattes: 1913003589198061 7 LimaSiArFeAdFoSh:2012:LaUsLa",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"