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@Article{CoronadoCaAnCoCaSaMe:2012:ReEmEt,
               author = "Coronado, Christian J. R. and Carvalho, Jo{\~a}o A. and Andrade, 
                         Jose Carlos de and Cortez, Ely V. and Carvalho, Felipe S. and 
                         Santos, Jos{\'e} C. and Mendiburu, Andr{\'e}s Z.",
          affiliation = "Federal University of Itajub{\'a} – UNIFEI, Mechanical 
                         Engineering Institute – IEM Av BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG CEP 
                         37500903, Brazil and S{\~a}o Paulo State University – UNESP, 
                         Campus of Guaratinguet{\'a} – FEG Av. Ariberto P. da Cunha 333, 
                         Guaratinguet{\'a}, SP CEP 12510410, Brazil and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Federal University of Itajub{\'a} 
                         – UNIFEI, Mechanical Engineering Institute – IEM Av BPS 1303, 
                         Itajub{\'a}, MG CEP 37500903, Brazil and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and S{\~a}o Paulo State University – 
                         UNESP, Campus of Guaratinguet{\'a} – FEG Av. Ariberto P. da Cunha 
                         333, Guaratinguet{\'a}, SP CEP 12510410, Brazil",
                title = "Flammability limits: A review with emphasis on ethanol for 
                         aeronautical applications and description of the experimental 
                         procedure",
              journal = "Journal of Hazardous Materials",
                 year = "2012",
               volume = "241-242",
                pages = "32--54",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "flammability limits, ethanol, visual criterion, pressure and 
                         temperature dependence.",
             abstract = "The lower and upper flammability limits of a fuel are key tools 
                         for predicting fire, assessing the possibility of explosion, and 
                         designing protection systems. Knowledge about the risks involved 
                         with the explosion of both gaseous and vaporized liquid fuel 
                         mixtures with air is very important to guarantee safety in 
                         industrial, domestic, and aeronautical applications. Currently, 
                         most countries use various standard experimental tests, which lead 
                         to different experimental values for these limits. A comprehensive 
                         literature review of the flammability limits of combustible 
                         mixtures is developed here in order to organize the theoretical 
                         and practical knowledge of the subject. The main focus of this 
                         paper is the review of the flammability data of ethanolair 
                         mixtures available in the literature. In addition, the description 
                         of methodology for experiments to find the upper and lower limits 
                         of flammability of ethanol for aeronautical applications is 
                         discussed. A heated spherical 20 L vessel was used. The mixtures 
                         were ignited with electrode rods placed in the center of the 
                         vessel, and the spark gap was 6.4 mm. LFL and the UFL were 
                         determined for ethanol (hydrated ethanol 96% °INPM) as functions 
                         of temperature for atmospheric pressure to compare results with 
                         data published in the scientific literature.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.035",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.035",
                 issn = "0304-3894",
                label = "lattes: 2806084485642993 3 CoronadoCaAnCoCaSaMe:2012:ReEmEt",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"
}


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