author = "Kayano, Mary Toshie and Andreoli, Rita Valeria and Souza, Rodrigo 
                         Augusto Ferreira de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, 
                         Manaus, AM, Brazil and Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Escola 
                         Superior de Tecnologia, Manaus, AM, Brazil",
                title = "Relations between ENSO and the South Atlantic SST modes and their 
                         effects on the South American rainfall",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2013",
               volume = "33",
                pages = "2008 – 2023",
             keywords = "climatology, climate variability, El Niño-Southern Oscillation.",
             abstract = "This paper analyses the relations between the El Niño/Southern 
                         Oscillation (ENSO) mode in the tropical Pacific and the sea 
                         surface temperature (SST) modes in the South Atlantic for the 1900 
                         2006 period. In the South Atlantic, two modes are analysed in more 
                         detail: the South Atlantic dipole (SAD) mode, with centres at 
                         (15°S, Greenwich longitude) and at (37.5°S, 25°W) and the 
                         southwestern South Atlantic (SWSA) mode, with centres at (30°S, 
                         40°W) and at the southern midlatitudes. The ENSO and SAD modes are 
                         lagged or lead connected depending on the period of analysis. An 
                         El Niño (a La Niña) precedes by up to 6 months the establishment 
                         of a positive (negative) SAD mode during the 1920 1930 and 1940 
                         1980 periods. Otherwise, a positive (negative) SAD mode precedes 
                         by up to 1 year the establishment of a La Niña (El Niño) during 
                         the 1975 2000 period. On the other hand, the SWSA is strongly 
                         driven by the ENSO. The effects of both the SAD and SWSA modes on 
                         the South American rainfall are also discussed on a seasonal 
                         basis. In general, the SAD (ENSO) mode has a weak influence on the 
                         ENSO-related (SAD-related) rainfall anomalies over South America. 
                         On the other hand, in general, the SWSA and ENSO modes have a 
                         combined effect on rainfall of the southern and southeastern 
                         regions of South America. A particularly important result of the 
                         present analysis for climate monitoring and forecasting purposes 
                         seems to be the changing relations between the SAD and ENSO 
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.3569",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3569",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
                label = "lattes: 9331105406437396 1 KayanoAndrSouz:2013:ReENSo",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Kayano_Relations.PDF",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"