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@Article{KlobucharAbdu:1989:EqIoIr,
               author = "Klobuchar, J. A. and Abdu, Mangalathyil Ali",
                title = "Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Produced by the Brazilian 
                         Ionospheric Modification Experiment (BIME)",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research",
                 year = "1989",
               volume = "94",
               number = "A3",
                pages = "2721--2736",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "AERONOMIA, bolhas de plasma, modulos de libera{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         qu{\'{\i}}mica, regi{\~a}o F2, irregularidades, 
                         ionosf{\'e}ricos, plasma bubbles, chemical release modules, F2 
                         region, irregularities, ionospherics.",
             abstract = "On two separate evenings in September 1982, rockets were launched 
                         into the bottomside equatorial F2 region off the coast of Natal, 
                         Brazil, to inject chemicals, consisting of mainly H20 and C02, to 
                         create a hole in ionization, The chemicals were injected near the 
                         height where the density gradient was steepest, and at a time when 
                         the F2 region was rising rapidly, to see whether plasma bubble 
                         irregularities could be generated from instabilities triggered by 
                         the ionization hole. On both occasions, hole-induced depletions in 
                         total electron content (TEC)of more than 10 16 el/M2 were observed 
                         over horizontal distances of at least 60 km from the chemical 
                         injection point. The eastward drifts of these artificial 
                         depletions were observed by the time difference in the TEC 
                         features observed at various TEC monitoring stations, and from the 
                         changing range of oblique ionosonde echoes observed by an 
                         ionosonde located 300 km magnetically east of the chemical release 
                         point. Their subsequent evolution into plasma bubble 
                         irregularities was demonstrated from the observations of spread F 
                         echoes, strong-amplitude scintillation, and TEC depletion at 
                         distances of from 300 to 500 km eastward of the release points. 
                         The fact that similar behavior of the ionosphere was observed 
                         during the evenings of both rocket chemical releases, and on no 
                         other nights of the campaign, is strong evidence of successful 
                         artificial generation of bubble irregularities by chemical 
                         injection into the bottomside F2 region.",
                 issn = "0148-0227 and 2156-2202",
                label = "9447",
           targetfile = "8423.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"
}


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