author = "Varej{\~a}o Silva, M{\'a}rio Adelmo and Franchito, Sergio 
                         Henrique and Vadlamudi, Brahmananda Rao",
                title = "A coupled biosphere-atmosphere climate model suitable for studies 
                         of climatic change due to land surface alterations",
              journal = "Journal of Climate",
                 year = "1998",
               volume = "11",
               number = "7",
                pages = "1749--1767",
                month = "July",
                         GEOBOTANIC STATE, REGIONAL climate, ZONAL MODEL, ALBEDO, IMPACT, 
                         GCM, MACROCLIMATE, TEMPERATURE.",
             abstract = "A biosphere model based on BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer 
                         Scheme) is coupled to a primitive equation global 
                         statistical-dynamical model in order to study the climatic impact 
                         due to land surface alterations. The fraction of the earth's 
                         surface covered by each vegetation type according to HATS is 
                         obtained for each latitude belt. In the control experiment, the 
                         mean annual zonally averaged climate is well simulated when 
                         compared with observations. Deforestation and desertification 
                         experiments are performed. In the deforestation experiment, the 
                         evergreen broadleaf tree in the Amazonian region is substituted by 
                         short grass; in the desertification experiment the semidesert, and 
                         the tall grass and deciduous shrubs are substituted by desert and 
                         semidesert in the African continent, respectively. The results 
                         show that in both the experiments there is a reduction in 
                         evapotranspiration and precipitation in the perturbed region and 
                         an increase in the soil surface temperature, the temperature of 
                         the foliage air layer, and the foliage temperature. Also, the 
                         latent heat flux decreased in the perturbed cases relative to the 
                         control case. To partially compensate for the decrease in latent 
                         hearing, sensible heat flux increased in the perturbed cases 
                         compared with the control case. The changes in the deforestation 
                         case are greater in the latitude belt centered at 5 degrees S, 
                         where in most part the Amazonian forest is situated. Otherwise, 
                         the changes in the desertification are greater in the latitude 
                         belt centered at 15 degrees N. When there ic; also degradation of 
                         the African tropical forest (substitution of evergreen broadleaf 
                         trees by short grass), the greatest changes occur southward from 
                         that region tin the latitude belt centered at 5 degrees N), and 
                         the magnitude of the changes are also increased. This shows the 
                         important role of the modification of tropical forest when there 
                         is degradation of the vegetation in the African region from 20 
                         degrees N to 0 degrees degrees. The results regarding the changes 
                         in the temperature and in the energy fluxes are in agreement with 
                         those of earlier experiments carried our with sophisticated 
                         general circulation models, which shows the usefulness of this 
                         kind of simple model.",
                 issn = "0894-8755",
                label = "6234",
           targetfile = "1998_varejao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"