author = "Sobral, Jos{\'e} Humberto Andrade and Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali and 
                         Takahashi, Hisao and Taylor, Michael J. and Paula, Eurico 
                         Rodrigues de and Zamlutti, Carlos Jos{\'e} and Aquino, Maria 
                         Goreti dos Santos and Borba, G. L.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Utah State University, Logan, Ut, 
                         USA and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Universidade Federal 
                         do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil",
                title = "Ionospheric plasma bubble climatology over Brazil based on 22 
                         years (1977-1998) of 630 nm airglow observations",
              journal = "Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics",
                 year = "2002",
               volume = "64",
               number = "12-14",
                pages = "1517--1524",
                month = "Aug.-Sep.",
             keywords = "aeronomia, ionospheric bubbles, ionospheric dynamics, F-region 
                         dynamics, O1 6300 A nocturnal airglow, equatorial ionosphere, 
                         thermospheric dynamics.",
             abstract = "The frequency of occurrence of the large-scale ionospheric plasma 
                         depletions, or plasma bubbles, over Cachoeira Paulista-CP (45W, 
                         33S, 28S dip), with solar activity, season, and geomagnetic 
                         activity, during the period of 1977-1998, is studied here based on 
                         934 days of scanning photometers and imagers data of the atomic 
                         oxygen 630 nm nocturnal airglow. The bubble occurrence for the 
                         entire period of study shows maximum rate of 86 percent in January 
                         and 11 pecent in May. The seasonal pattern of the bubble 
                         occurrence shows up as broad a maximum and a minimum centered 
                         around summer and winter months, respectively. While during the 
                         high-solar activity the maximum extends from September to April, 
                         for the low-activity period it extends from October to March. The 
                         average sunspot number for the solar maximum (minimum)for the data 
                         of this work is 129.9 (33.1). Significant increase of bubble 
                         occurrence (by similar to 80 percent ) from low to high solar 
                         activity levels is found to occur in the present analysis only 
                         during the equinoctial months of March-April and 
                         September-October. The post-sunset plasma bubble occurrence over 
                         Cachoeira Paulista is found to decrease with increase of K-p that 
                         precedes the sunset by > 4 h, suggesting the role of disturbance 
                         dynamo electric field to inhibit its development. Increase of K-p 
                         during sunset hours can increase the bubble occurrence as a 
                         possible effect of prompt penetration electric field. These 
                         results are presented and discussed in this paper.",
                 issn = "1364-6826",
                label = "10651",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1-s2.0-S1364682602000895-main.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"