author = "Kaufman, Y. J. and Setzer, Alberto Waingort and Ward, D. and 
                         Tanre, D. and Holben, B. N. and Menzel, P. and Pereira, Marco da 
                         Costa and Rasmussen, R",
                title = "Biomass burning airborne and spaceborne experiment in the Amazon 
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research",
                 year = "1992",
               volume = "97",
               number = "D13",
                pages = "14581--14599",
                month = "Sept.",
             abstract = "In the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the 
                         Amazonas ( BASE-A ), conducted in September 1989, trace gas and 
                         particulale matter emissions were measured from biomass burning 
                         due to deforestation and grassland fires in South America. This 
                         information is requires for a better understanding of the 
                         environmental impacts of biomass burning in the tropics and to 
                         improve algorithms for remote sensing of biomass burning from 
                         satellite platforms. The fiels experiment utilized the twin-engine 
                         Embraer Bandeirante EMB-101 instrumented aircraft of the Brazilian 
                         Institute for Space Research (INPE). Concentrations of 
                         ozone,CO2,CO, CH4, and particulate matter were measured from the 
                         aircraft. Fires were observed form satelitte imagery and the smoke 
                         optical thicknessparticle size,and profiles of the extinction 
                         coefficient were measured using sunphotometers in the aircraft and 
                         from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled,three vertical 
                         profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements were 
                         conducted of smoke optical characteritics for different smoke 
                         types. The collected data were analyzed for determining the 
                         emission ratios and combustion efficiency of a fire to convert the 
                         total burned carbon to carbon dioxide and were compares with teh 
                         results from fires in North America. Combustion efficienty was 
                         foundto be higher in tropics (97 for the cerrado and 90 for the 
                         deforestation fires)with emission factors similar to those of 
                         North American fires, for a given combustion efficienty. A strong 
                         was found between the spatial distribution of fires (up to 9000 
                         per day in on state)and ozone concentration (up to 80 ppbv)and 
                         teween biomass burging and concentration of trace gases, 
                         particulate matter and ozone. These relations strongly suggest a 
                         correlation between biomass burning in the tropics and ozone 
                         formation. An optical model the smoke aerosol was derived applied 
                         to radiance measurements. The smoke single scattering albedo was 
                         computed from the graphitic carbon concentration( assuming 
                         external mode mixture)as 0.90 +- 0.01. The particles effective 
                         radii were 0.1 to 0.2 um, expcept for 1-day aged smoke with values 
                         up to 0.4 um. Radiance measurements indicate that the width of the 
                         particle size distribuition may be smaller in the tropics than for 
                         North American fires. The measured optical properties of smoke and 
                         the high correlation between emitted trace gases and particles 
                         form a basis for remote sensing of radiatively important trace 
                         gases and particulate matter from biomass burning using AVHRR 
                 issn = "0148-0227 and 2156-2202",
                label = "6894",
           targetfile = "1992_kaufman.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"