author = "Paradella, Waldir Renato and Pietsch, Ron W. and Dias, Ricardo 
                         Ribeiro and Veneziani, Paulo and Liu, Chan Chiang and Santos, 
                         Athos Ribeiro dos and Bignelli, Pedro Alberto",
                title = "Potential of RADARSAT data for geological application in the 
                         tropical rain forest environments: first results from Carajas 
                         Mineral Province, Brazilian Amazon Region",
                 year = "1997",
                pages = "303",
         organization = "Geomatics in the Era of RADARSAT (GER'97).",
             keywords = "CARAJASAMAZONIA REGIAO.",
             abstract = "As part of the ADRO Program. RADARSAT data has been acquired in 
                         the Carajas Mineral Province, easternmost border of the Brazilian 
                         Amazon. The Province encompasses the world's largest iron deposits 
                         and important Brazilian deposits of Salobo (Cu-Au-Mo-Ag), Pojuca 
                         (Cu-Zn), Azul (Mn), Bahia (Au-Cu)and Vermelho (Ni), among others. 
                         Despite the great volume of previous geological data, the geology 
                         of the Province is not completely known and has not been fully 
                         mapped. The area is related to an Archean Shear belt, with 
                         metasediments, metavolcanics, gneisses and granulites. Anorogenic 
                         granites with Middle Proterozoic ages are scattered throughout the 
                         region. The vegetation is typical of tropical upland rain forest 
                         communities with complex and multilevel canopies with numerous 
                         species of trees and plants. Previous investigations with CCRS SAR 
                         580 (SAREX'92)have shown that airborne C-band SAR data provided an 
                         effective data source for geological mapping and is consistent 
                         with published large scale maps. New information on structures and 
                         lithologies were obtained and provided improved information for 
                         current geology of the area. Although these findings were obtained 
                         under airborne conditions, it is expected that RADARSAT will 
                         provide similar results for systematic geological mapping, mineral 
                         exploration, monitoring and the environmental control of the 
                         mining activities in the area. The main objectives of the ADRO 
                         project are: (1)to evaluate the performance of the various modes 
                         of RADARSAT (ScanSAR, Fine and Standard beams)aiming at 
                         tectonical/structural analysis and geological mapping; (2)to 
                         develop RADARSAT digital integrated products with ancillary data 
                         (Landsat TM and aerogeophysical)for mapping in heavily-vegetated 
                         tropical rainforest terrain; (3)to evaluate the potential of 
                         RADARSAT High Resolution data (Fine Beam)in the mapping of 
                         surficial laterite units related to iron mineralizations. The main 
                         regional litho-structural domains in the Carajas are have been 
                         distinguished through visual analysis and these are: (1)the 
                         southern domain or Serra dos Carajas imbricated sinistral shear 
                         zones with rocks related to the Xingu Complex, Pium Complex, 
                         Plaque Granitoids and Sapucaia Group; (2)the central domain with a 
                         transcurrent nature, with thrusting records represented by the 
                         several rock systems (Serra dos Carajas, Cinzento, Tapirape and 
                         Buritirama)and (3)the northern domain characterized by 
                         overthrusting of mainly granulitic rocks tectonically mixed with 
                         portions of the Xingu Complex. A 55 Kilometre square area in the 
                         Central Carajas Mountain Range was selected for the digital 
                         integration of RADARSAT with Landsat TM and Airborne gamma ray 
                         (Total Count, U, Th). The SAR data was radiometricly corrected 
                         (Antenna Pattern)and orthorectified with speckle suppression 
                         filtering (Fgamma). The Landsat TM was also orthorectified and a 
                         30 m pixel size was chosen for the geological digital integration. 
                         The integration was based on IHS/RGB transformation. The 
                         combination of RADARSAT with Landsat TM shows geobotanical 
                         controls, i.e., spectral variations closely related to vegetation 
                         responses and displayed in gradations of hue while radar enhances 
                         the relief. The integration of RADARSAT with isolated gamma ray 
                         channels has favored insights between terrain 
                         (morphology/bedrock)radiometric properties and lithological units, 
                         rock types and also hydrothermal metasomatic processes. The first 
                         results of this investigation emphasize the importance of using 
                         digital integration based on RADARSAT data as an effective tool in 
                         systematic geological mapping in the Amazon Region.",
  conference-location = "Ottawa, Canada",
      conference-year = "25-30 May 1997",
                label = "7836",
           targetfile = "INPE 6489.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"