author = "Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de and Longo, Karla Maria and Silva Dias, 
                         Maria Assuncao Faus da and Silva Dias, Pedro L. and Chatfield, 
                         Robert and Prins, Elaine and Artaxo, Paulo and Grell, Georg A. and 
                         Recuero, Fernando S.",
          affiliation = "{CPTEC-INPE-Cachoeira Paulista-12630-000-SP-Brasil}",
                title = "Monitoring the transport of biomass burning emissions in South 
              journal = "Environmental Fluid Mechanics",
                 year = "2005",
               volume = "5",
               number = "1-2",
                pages = "135 - 167",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "Aerosol transport, air pollution, atmospheric modeling, biomass 
                         burning, climate change, long-distance transpol1, weather 
             abstract = "The atmospheric transport of biomass buming emissions in the South 
                         American and African continents is being monitored annually using 
                         a numerical simulation of air mass motions; we use a tracer 
                         transport capability developed within RAMS (Regional Atmospheric 
                         Modeling Sys- tem) coupled to an emission modelo Mass conservation 
                         equations are solved for carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate 
                         material (PM2.5). Source emissions of trace gases and particles 
                         associated with biomass buming activities in tropical forest, 
                         savanna and pasture have been parameterized and introduced into 
                         the modelo The sources are distributed spatially and temporally 
                         and assimilated daily using the biomass buming locations detected 
                         by remote sensing. Advection effects (at grid scale) and turbulent 
                         transport (at sub-grid scale) are provided by the RAMS 
                         parameterizations. A sub- grid transport parameterization 
                         associated with moist deep and shallow convection, not explicitly 
                         resolved by lhe modeldue to its low spatial resolution, has also 
                         been introduced. Sinks associated with lhe process of wet and dry 
                         removal of aerosol particles and chemical transformation of gases 
                         are parameterized and introduced in lhe mass conservation 
                         equation. An operational system has been implemented which 
                         produces daily 48-h numerical simulations (including 24-h 
                         forecasts) of CO and PM2.5, in addition to traditional 
                         meteorological fields. The good prediction skills of lhe model are 
                         demonstrated by comparisons with time series of PM2.5 measured at 
                         the surface.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "1567-7419",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Freitas_Monitoring the transport of biomass.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"