author = "Houghton, R. A. and Skole, D. L. and Nobre, Carlos Afonso and 
                         Hackler, J. L. and Lawrence, K. T. and Chomentowski, W. H.",
          affiliation = "{CPTEC-INPE-Cachoeira Paulista-12630-000-SP-Brasil}",
                title = "Annual fluxes or carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the 
                         Brazilian Amazon",
              journal = "Nature",
                 year = "2000",
               volume = "403",
               number = "6767",
                pages = "301--304",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "meteorologia, pasture soils, land use, forest, biomass, budgest.",
             abstract = "The distribution of sources and sinks of carbon among the world's 
                         ecosystems is uncertain. Some analyses show northern midlatitude 
                         lands to be a large sink, whereas the tropics are a net source(1); 
                         other analyses show the tropics to be nearly neutral. whereas 
                         northern mid-latitudes are a small sink(2,3). Here we show that 
                         the annual flux of carbon from deforestation and abandonment of 
                         agricultural lands in the Brazilian Amazon was a source of about 
                         0.2 g C yr(-1)over the period 1989-1998 (1 Pg is 10(15)g). This 
                         estimate is based on annual rates of deforestation and spatially 
                         detailed estimates of deforestation, regrowing forests and 
                         biomass. Logging may add another 5-10 percent to this estimate(4), 
                         and fires may double the magnitude of the source in years 
                         following a drought(4), The annual source of carbon from land-use 
                         change and fire approximately offsets the sink calculated for 
                         natural ecosystems in the region(5,6). Thus this large area of 
                         tropical forest is nearly balanced with respect to carbon, but has 
                         an interannual variability of +/- 0.2 PgC yr(-1).",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "0028-0836",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Houghton_Annual fluxes or carbon from.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 jan. 2021"