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@Article{SilvaFra:2006:NuExCo,
               author = "Silva, M. E. S. and Franchito, Sergio Henrique and Rao and 
                         Vadlamudi and Brahmananda",
          affiliation = "Laborat{\'o}rio de Climatologia e Biogeografia LCB, FFLCH/USP, SP 
                         and {Centro de Previs{\~a}o de Tempo e Estudos Cliam{\'a}ticos 
                         CPTEC/INPE} and {Centro de Previs{\~a}o de Tempo e Estudos 
                         Cliam{\'a}ticos CPTEC/INPE}",
                title = "Effects of the Amazonian deforestation on climate: a numerical 
                         experiment with a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model with soil 
                         hydrology",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2006",
               volume = "85",
               number = "1-2",
                pages = "1--18",
                month = "dec.",
             keywords = "land surface, tropical deforestation, climate, circulation, 
                         parameterization.",
             abstract = "A coupled biosphere-atmosphere statistical-dynamical model (SDM) 
                         is used to study the climatic effects of Amazonian deforestation. 
                         A soil moisture model based on BATS has been incorporated into the 
                         SDM in order to study the biogeophysical feedback of change in 
                         surface characteristics to regional climate due to the 
                         deforestation. In the control experiment, the mean annual and mean 
                         seasonal climate is well simulated by the model when compared with 
                         NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. In the deforestation experiment, the 
                         evergreen broadleaf trees in the Amazonian region are substituted 
                         by short grass. The effects of Amazonian deforestation on regional 
                         climate are analysed taking into account the model simulations for 
                         the land portion of the latitude belts comprising the tropical 
                         region. Amazonian deforestation results in regional climate 
                         changes such as a decrease in evaporation, precipitation, 
                         available surface net radiation and soil moisture content, and an 
                         increase in temperatures and sensible heat flux. The reduction in 
                         transpiration was responsible for the most part of the decrease in 
                         total evapotranspiration. The reduction in precipitation was 
                         larger than the decrease in evapotranspiration so that runoff was 
                         reduced. The simulation of the diurnal cycle of the surface 
                         temperature shows an increase in temperature during the day and a 
                         decrease at night, which is in agreement with observations, 
                         whereas earlier GCM experiments showed an increase both during the 
                         day and night. In general, the changes in temperature and energy 
                         fluxes are in good agreement with GCM experiments, showing that 
                         the SDM is able to simulate the characteristics of the tropical 
                         climate that are associated with the substitution of forest by 
                         pasture areas.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Silva-effects.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"
}


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