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@Article{GomesUedBelReuRic:2005:ChEnAI,
               author = "Gomes, Geraldo Francisco and Ueda, M{\'a}rio and Beloto, Antonio 
                         Fernando and Reuther, H. and Richter, E.",
          affiliation = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Laborat{\'o}rio 
                         Associado de Plasmas (INPE. LAP) and Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais, Laborat{\'o}rio Associado de Plasma (INPE. 
                         LAP) and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Laboratorio 
                         Associado de Sensores e Materiais (INPE. LAS) and 
                         Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and 
                         Materials Research and Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of 
                         Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research",
                title = "Chromium enrichment of AISI 304 stainless steel surface after 
                         nitrogen ion recoil bombardment of chromium film",
              journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: 
                         Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms",
                 year = "2005",
               volume = "240",
               number = "1-2",
                pages = "194--198",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "PLASMA, Plasma immersion ions implantation, CEMS, AES, SS 304, 
                         Enhanced diffusion, Iron, PLASMA, Implanta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         i{\^o}nica por imers{\~a}o de plasma, Difus{\~a}o 
                         refor{\c{c}}ada, Ferro.",
             abstract = "When performing nitriding of stainless steels, there is a decrease 
                         or even complete depletion of chromium in the nitrogen rich region 
                         just beneath the surface, inhibiting the formation of passivated 
                         Cr oxide layer, beneficial to withstand corrosive attacks and 
                         Cr/Fe nitrides, responsible for hardness enhancement. To overcome 
                         this problem, a hybrid technique was used, consisting of 
                         depositing a thin chromium film on steel surface and then 
                         bombarding it with nitrogen ions. By a complex recoil process, 
                         chromium atoms are implanted into the steel matrix. Plasma 
                         immersion ion implantation (PIII) was used in this bombardment. 
                         The new Cr-rich layer allows the formation of Cr oxides and 
                         nitrides. Treated surfaces were characterized by Auger electron 
                         spectroscopy (AES) and conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy 
                         (CEMS), showing formation of a new Cr-rich layer.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "0168-583X and 0167-5087",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "chromium enrichment.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"
}


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