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@Article{ChuLiTaSoTaMe:2005:ClIoPl,
               author = "Chu, F. D. and Liu, J. Y. and Takahashi, Hisao and Sobral, Jose 
                         Humberto Andrade and Taylor, M. J. and Medeiros, A. R.",
          affiliation = "Institute of Space Science, National Central University and 
                         Institute of Space Science, National Central University and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Utah State 
                         University} and {Universidade Federal de Campina Grande}",
                title = "The climatology of ionospheric plasma bubbles and irregularities 
                         over Brazil",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2005",
               volume = "23",
               number = "2",
                pages = "379--384",
             keywords = "ionosphere, equatorial ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances, 
                         ionospheric irregularities /GPS PHASE FLUCTUATIONS, LOW LATITUDE, 
                         EQUATORIAL, AIRGLOW, SOLAR, DEPLETIONS, REGION, AERONOMY, DRIFTS, 
                         LAYER.",
             abstract = "In this paper, we examine ionospheric plasma depletions (or 
                         bubbles) and irregularities observed by photometers and a 
                         ground-based receiver of the global positioning system (GPS) both 
                         located in Brazil, South America. A simultaneous observation 
                         reveals that when the ionospheric plasma becomes depleted, the GPS 
                         total electron content decreases and the associated phase 
                         fluctuations grow. Statistical results show that the plasma 
                         bubbles and the significant GPS phase fluctuations generally occur 
                         during October-March. The solar activity variation is not obvious 
                         in either observation except during the equinoctial months. The 
                         GPS phase fluctuations suggest that the most pronounced 
                         ionospheric irregularities appear between 20:00 and 01:00 LT, 
                         which generally agree with previous ionospheric bubble 
                         observations.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "chu-climatology.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"
}


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