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@PhDThesis{Nunes:2002:InFíMo,
               author = "Nunes, Ana Maria Bueno",
                title = "Inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o f{\'{\i}}sica em modelos de 
                         previs{\~a}o de tempo e estudo de seus efeitos na 
                         parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o de energia em modos verticais e horizontais 
                         nos tr{\'o}picos e na Am{\'e}rica do Sul",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2002",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2002-02",
             keywords = "inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o f{\'{\i}}sica, assimila{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, previs{\~a}o n{\'u}merica de tempo, 
                         modelos espectrais, tr{\'o}picos, Am{\'e}rica do Sul.",
             abstract = "A inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o f{\'{\i}}sica foi desenvolvida por 
                         pesquisadores da Florida State University para aprimorar a 
                         previs{\~a}o de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o na regido tropical pelos 
                         modelos de previs{\~a}o num6rica de tempo. Neste procedimento de 
                         inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, as taxas de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         observadas s{\~a}o assimiladas usando algoritmos de 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o cumulus inversa e relaxa{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         newtoniana. Ao final do per{\'{\i}}odo de 
                         assimila{\c{c}}{\~a}o - tipicamente 24 horas - o modelo 
                         ser{\'a} capaz de reproduzir as apropriadas taxas de 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. A habilidade do modelo espectral 
                         regional FSU em assimilar dados de alta resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o sobre o Brasil ser{\'a} enfocada neste 
                         trabalho. JA que o modelo espectral global FSU foi usado como 
                         campo b6sico (i.e. contorno) para o modelo regional, 6, em 
                         adi{\c{c}}{\~a}o, examinado o impacto da 
                         inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo global sobre a 
                         assimila{\c{c}}{\~a}o de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o pelo modelo 
                         regional. A inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o f{\'{\i}}sica f6i tamb6m 
                         inclu{\'{\i}}da na vers{\~a}o do modelo espectral global do 
                         Center for Ocean-Land-A tmosph ere Studies usada pelo Centro de 
                         Previs{\~a}o do Tempo e Estudos Clim{\'a}ticos no Brasil. Por 
                         meio de condiq6es fisicamente inicializadas, a previs{\~a}o da 
                         chuva acumulada em 24 horas dos modelos regional FSU e global do 
                         CPTEC tiveram os coeficientes de correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial 
                         aumentados quando comparadas com as estimativas obtidas atrav6s 
                         dos dados do Special Sensor Microwavellmager e de 
                         Radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Onda Longa Emergente. Um estudo dos 
                         efeitos da inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o sobre as estruturas verticais 
                         e horizontais dos modos normais mostrou que os modos misto 
                         Rossby-gravidade, gravidade leste e oeste, com complexas 
                         estruturas verticais e, portanto, com alturas equivalentes 
                         menores, t6m sua energia total aumentada por influ6ncia da 
                         inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o f{\'{\i}}sica. Por outro lado, a 
                         percentagern da energia total nos modos verticais relacionados h 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o, com maiores alturas equivalentes, 6 
                         diminu{\'{\i}}da devido h inicializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         f{\'{\i}}sica, tamb6m nos modos misto, gravidade leste e oeste, 
                         Durante o ver{\~a}o do Hemisf6rio Sul, a intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         modo de gravidade oeste com o modo Rossby, e com o modo Kelvin 
                         contribuem positivamente para a energia total sobre a regido da 
                         Zona de Converg6ncia do AtHintico Sul. ABSTRACT: Physical 
                         initialization was developed at The Florida State University to 
                         improve rainfall forecast over tropical region by numerical 
                         weather prediction models. III this initialization procedure, 
                         observed rainfall rates are assimilated using reverse cumulus 
                         algorithms and nudging. At the end of the assimilation period - 
                         usually 24 hours - the model will be able to reproduce the proper 
                         rainfall rates. The ability of the FSU regional spectral model to 
                         assimilate high resolution rainfall data over Brazil will be 
                         focused in this work. Since the FSU global spectral model was used 
                         as a base field (i.e. boundary) for the regional model, the impact 
                         of initialization of the global model on the regional model's 
                         ability to assimilate rainfall is also examined. Physical 
                         initialization was also included in a version of the Center for 
                         Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies Global Spectral Model used by the 
                         Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies in Brazil. The 
                         24-hour accumulated precipitation predicted fields from the 
                         physically initialized conditions show improved correlations with 
                         the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager-Outgoing Longwave Radiation 
                         estimates in FSU regional and CPTEC global models. A study of 
                         physical initialization effects on the normal mode vertical and 
                         horizontal structures showed that mixed Rossby-gravity mode, and 
                         eastward and westward propagating gravity modes with complex 
                         vertical structures, which have smaller equivalent depths, 
                         increase their total energy by the influence of physical 
                         initialization. On the other hand, the percentage of total energy 
                         in the vertical modes related to the convection - with larger 
                         equivalent depths - is decreased in the mixed Rossby-gravity mode, 
                         and in the two gravity modes due to physical initialization. 
                         During the Southern Hemisphere summer, westward gravity mode 
                         interaction with Rossby mode as well as Kelvin mode contribute 
                         positively to the total energy in the region of the South Atlantic 
                         Convergence Zone.",
            committee = "Ceballos, Juan Carlos and Satyamurty, Prakki (orientador) and 
                         Bonatti, Jos{\'e} Paulo (orientador) and Nobre, Carlos Afonso and 
                         Ferreira, Nelson Jesus and Ferreira, Marlene Elias and Farina, 
                         Leandro",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Physical initialization in weather prediction models and study of 
                         its effects on the energy partition the vertical and horizontal 
                         modes over the tropics and South Americar",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "217",
                  ibi = "6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/znm4y",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/znm4y",
           targetfile = "paginadeacesso.html",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"
}


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