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@PhDThesis{Moraes:2002:PaPrRa,
               author = "Moraes, Elisabete Caria",
                title = "Parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos processos radiativos em modelo 
                         clim{\'a}tico simples",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2002",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2002-02-08",
             keywords = "meteorologia, radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, modelos atmosf{\'e}ricos, 
                         mudan{\c{c}}a clim{\'a}tica, efeitos de g{\'a}s estufa, 
                         desflorestamento, radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar, radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         atmosf{\'e}rica, meteorology, radiation, atmospheric models, 
                         climate change, greenhouse effect, deforestation, solar radiation, 
                         atmospheric radiation.",
             abstract = "Modelos de transfer{\^e}ncia radiativa solar e termal, baseados 
                         em parametriza{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos processos de transfer{\^e}ncia 
                         radiativa sofisticados e eficientes computacionalmente, foram 
                         implementados em um modelo atmosf{\'e}rico estat{\'{\i}}stico 
                         din{\^a}mico com vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o acoplada (MED), 
                         objetivando simular o clima m{\'e}dio zonal anual e os 
                         poss{\'{\i}}veis impactos clim{\'a}ticos provenientes de 
                         a{\c{c}}{\~o}es antropog{\^e}nicas. Com o intuito de verificar 
                         a acur{\'a}cia dos modelos de transfer{\^e}ncia radiativa, 
                         realizou-se a compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o das grandezas 
                         radiom{\'e}tricas simuladas por estes modelos com os dados 
                         observacionais obtidos na campanha Wet Season Atmospheric 
                         Mesoscale Campaign / Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment 
                         in Amazonia em dois s{\'{\i}}tios experimentais: floresta 
                         primitiva e pastagem. Na an{\'a}lise estat{\'{\i}}stica 
                         observou-se a alta confiabilidade nas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         provenientes do modelo de transfer{\^e}ncia radiativa solar e uma 
                         boa concord{\^a}ncia das grandezas termais, principalmente, para 
                         a regi{\~a}o de pastagem. As simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es apresentaram 
                         erros m{\'e}dios da mesma ordem ou at{\'e} menores do que os 
                         erros instrumentais, exceto para o caso da radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         solar refletida. De forma geral, a vers{\~a}o atual do MED 
                         conseguiu reproduzir bem as caracter{\'{\i}}sticas m{\'e}dias 
                         zonais anuais do clima presente, quando comparados com os dados de 
                         rean{\'a}lise do National Centers for Environmental Prediction / 
                         National Center for Atmospheric Research, apresentando melhoras 
                         nas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es do clima m{\'e}dio zonal anual 
                         presente, exceto nas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es das vari{\'a}veis 
                         din{\^a}micas. Os impactos m{\'e}dios zonais anuais 
                         clim{\'a}ticos continentais causados pelo desflorestamento foram 
                         a redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do saldo de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o e, 
                         conseq{\"u}entemente, um aumento na temperatura da 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie e uma redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o na 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, o que concorda com in{\'u}meros 
                         experimentos de desflorestamento realizados atrav{\'e}s de 
                         modelos de circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o geral. Ao considerar o 
                         desflorestamento conjuntamente com altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos 
                         gases-estufa, verificou-se que as altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es nas 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas de superf{\'{\i}}cie influenciam mais o 
                         balan{\c{c}}o de energia e a parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o desta do que as 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es das concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         gases-estufa. Nos experimentos de duplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         quadruplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o do CO2, e de previs{\~a}o para 2100 de 
                         aumento nas concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es de CO2 e CH4, e do CO2, CH4, 
                         N2O e O3 troposf{\'e}rico definidos pelo Intergovernmental Painel 
                         on Climate Change, verificou-se que as altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es no 
                         balan{\c{c}}o radiativo provocaram aumentos na temperatura do ar 
                         {\`a} superf{\'{\i}}cie, sendo estes mais acentuados nas 
                         regi{\~o}es polares, e redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o na 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. As maiores altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram 
                         verificadas com a quadruplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         concentra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de CO2. No experimento de queima da 
                         biomassa da Floresta Amaz{\^o}nica verificou-se que os 
                         aeross{\'o}is carbonaceous foram os respons{\'a}veis pela maior 
                         redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do fluxo de calor sens{\'{\i}}vel, enquanto 
                         que a altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos par{\^a}metros de 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie provocou a maior redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do fluxo 
                         de calor latente. A queima de biomassa provocou um aumento na 
                         temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie e uma redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o na 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. ABSTRACT: Shortwave and longwave 
                         radiative transfer models, based on sophisticated and numerically 
                         efficient parameterizations of radiative transfer processes, were 
                         implemented in a coupled vegetation statistical-dynamical 
                         atmospheric model (MED), in simulating the annual zonal mean 
                         climate and anthropogenic climate impacts. In order to verify the 
                         radiative transfer models accuracy, comparisons between 
                         radiometric variables from model simulations and observational 
                         data set, which are obtained during the Wet Season Atmospheric 
                         Mesoscale Campaign / Large-Scale Biosphere- Atmosphere Experiment 
                         in Amazonia, were accomplished at two experimental sites: 
                         primitive forest and pasture. Statistical analyses indicated that 
                         the shortwave radiative transfer model simulations are trustful, 
                         and that the longwave radiation simulations agree with the 
                         observational data, especially, over pasture region. The radiative 
                         transfer model simulations showed mean errors of the same order or 
                         lower than the instrumentation error, except in reflected solar 
                         radiation. In general, the recent version of MED were able to 
                         simulate the present annual zonal mean climate, when compared with 
                         National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for 
                         Atmospheric Research reanalysis data, improving the results of the 
                         present annual zonal mean climate, except in dynamic variable 
                         simulations. The impacts on the annual zonal mean continental 
                         climate due to the deforestation were the reduction of the net 
                         radiation, the surface temperature increase, and the precipitation 
                         decrease. These results are in agreement with several global 
                         circulation model deforestation experiments. The greenhouse 
                         effects regarding the deforestation experiments showed that the 
                         surface parameters modifications influence more the radiation 
                         budget and energy partition. Over deforested areas, the greenhouse 
                         experiments showed that the surface parameters modifications have 
                         more influence than the greenhouse effects increase on the 
                         radiation budget and energy partition. The modifications in the 
                         net radiation regarding the experiments of: doubling and 
                         quadruplication of CO2, concentration increase of CO2 and CH4, and 
                         concentration increase of CO2, CH4, N2O, and tropospheric O3, 
                         where the two later concentration increases were predicted to 2100 
                         by Intergovernmental Painel on Climate Change, indicated that air 
                         temperature close to the ground was increased with higher values 
                         over polar region in both Hemispheres, and precipitation 
                         reduction. The higher changes in air temperature and precipitation 
                         fields were obtained during the quadruplication CO2 experiment. In 
                         the Amazon Forest burning experiment, the carbonaceous were the 
                         primarily cause of the sensible heat flux decreases, and the 
                         surface parameters were the primarily cause of the latent heat 
                         flux reduction. Furthermore, the biomass burning caused surface 
                         temperature increase and precipitation decrease.",
            committee = "S{\'a}, Leonardo Deane de Abreu (presidente) and Rao, Vadlamudi 
                         Brahmananda (orientador) and Franchito, Sergio Henrique 
                         (orientador) and Andr{\'e}, Rom{\'{\i}}sio Geraldo Bouhid and 
                         Tarasova, Tatiana Aleksandrovna",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Parameterization of radiative processes in simple climate 
                         models.",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "295",
                  ibi = "6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/Egaxq",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/Egaxq",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 fev. 2021"
}


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