author = "Kostov, K. G. and Ueda, M{\'a}rio and Lepiensky, A. and Soares 
                         J{\'u}nior, P. C. and Gomes, Geraldo Francisco and Silva, M. M. 
                         and Reuther, H.",
          affiliation = "Sofia University, Department of General Physics and Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Laborat{\'o}rio Associado de 
                         Plasma (INPE.LAP) and {Universidade Federal do Paran{\'a}. 
                         Departamento de F{\'{\i}}sica (UFPR)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Paran{\'a}. Departamento de F{\'{\i}}sica (UFPR)} and 
                         Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Laborat{\'o}rio 
                         Associado de Plasma (INPE.LAP) and {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica. Departamento de Engenharia Mec{\^a}nica (ITA)} 
                         and {Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research}",
                title = "Surface modification of metal alloys by plasma immersion ion 
                         implantation and subsequent plasma nitriding",
              journal = "Surface and Coatings Technology",
                 year = "2004",
               volume = "186",
               number = "1-2",
                pages = "204--208",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "PLASMA, Plasma nitriding, Plasma-immersion ion implantation, 
                         Duplex treatment, AES, XRD, Hardness , Stainless-steel, PLASMA, 
                         Nitrido de plasma, Implanta{\c{c}}{\~a}o i{\^o}nica por 
                         imers{\~a}o em plasma, Tratamento duplo.",
             abstract = "Thermal or radiation enhanced diffusion of nitrogen are 
                         extensively utilized for the surface hardening of metallic 
                         components. Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a newly 
                         developed technology, which provides ion implantation at moderate 
                         energy (10-50 keV), and thereby allowing penetration depths deeper 
                         than the surface oxide barrier. The damage caused by ion 
                         implantation together with the surface sputtering may create 
                         favorable boundary conditions for an efficient subsequent 
                         diffusive treatment such as nittiding. Surface modification of 
                         aluminum alloy 5052, Ti6A14V alloy and steels (AISI 304 and H13) 
                         by a combination of PIII and plasma nitriding (PN) has been 
                         investigated. Nitrogen ions were implanted into specimens at 15 W 
                         and then ion nitrided at low pressure with bias of - 800 V. 
                         Compared to the untreated samples the hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy 
                         and AISI 304 steel could be improved significantly. The hardness 
                         of H13 steel can be increased by 20% using a duplex process with 
                         4-h nitriding time. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results have shown 
                         some structural modification of the metallic samples and formation 
                         of a double-layer structure in AISI 304, treated by PIII and PN. 
                         Nitrogen depth profile of the same stainless steel sample, 
                         obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), shows two rather 
                         well-defined nitrogen enriched regions with different N contents: 
                         high (25-30 at.%) in a surface layer and medium (similar to 10%) 
                         in a subsurface layer.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.04.027",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.04.027",
                 issn = "0257-8972",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "surface modification.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"