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@ElectronicSource{CoelhoFerrStepStei::ExToAn,
             abstract = "This paper reviews and introduces new tools based on Extreme Value 
                         Theory (EVT) for the analysis of extreme weather and climate 
                         events in gridded datasets. The methods allow exploratory analysis 
                         of spatial patterns of extremes, the investigation of 
                         relationships between extremes and potentially influential factors 
                         (e.g. ENSO), the analysis of temporal clustering of extremes, and 
                         also the study of teleconnection patterns of extremes (spatial 
                         extreme dependence). The methods are illustrated using Northern 
                         Hemisphere monthly mean gridded temperatures for June-July-August 
                         (JJA) summers from 1870 to 2005. All analyses are focused on hot 
                         extreme temperature events defined by observed temperatures 
                         exceeding a pre-defined threshold. Results show that hot extreme 
                         temperatures have larger variability in extratropical continental 
                         regions than in oceanic and tropical regions. Extreme temperature 
                         variability over tropical and oceanic regions is found to be 
                         driven mainly by local processes rather than by ENSO atmospheric 
                         teleconnections. Over extratropical continental regions extreme 
                         temperature variability is found to be affected by ENSO. Larger 
                         variability of extreme temperatures is found during La Niņa 
                         conditions over most of North America, some regions in eastern 
                         Europe and Scandinavia. Larger variability of extreme temperatures 
                         is found during El Niņo conditions over most of Asia, Russia, and 
                         western Europe. The Atlantic and East Pacific oceans show higher 
                         temporal clustering of extreme events than continental regions, 
                         most likely due to the longer memory of oceans compared to 
                         continents. Extreme temperatures over central Europe during August 
                         are found to be related to extreme temperatures in the west North 
                         Atlantic.",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
          affiliation = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Centro de 
                         Previs{\~a}o de Tempo e Estudos Clim{\'a}ticos(CPTEC). and NCAS- 
                         Climate, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, 
                         Reading, UK and Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, 
                         Reading, UK and Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, 
                         Bergen, Norway",
               author = "Coelho, Caio Augusto dos Santos and Ferro, Christopher A. T. and 
                         Stephenson, David B. and Steinskog, D. J.",
             keywords = "extreme value theory, EVT, teleconnection patterns, temperatures 
                         extratropical, tropical regions, ENSO, La Niņa.",
             language = "en",
       lastupdatedate = "2006-11-29",
            publisher = "Instituto and Nacional and de and Pesquisas and Espaciais",
                  ibi = "sid.inpe.br/mtc-m17@80/2006/11.28.14.11",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/sid.inpe.br/mtc-m17@80/2006/11.28.14.11",
           targetfile = "v1.pdf",
                title = "Exploratory tools for the analysis of extreme weather and climate 
                         events in gridded datasets",
         typeofmedium = "On-line",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"
}


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