author = "Evangelista, Heitor and Maldonado, J. and Godoi, R. H. M. and 
                         Pereira, E. B. and Kock, D. and Tanizaki-Fonseca, K. and Van 
                         Grieken, Rene and Sampaio, Marcelo and Setzer, Alberto Waingort 
                         and Alencar, A. and Gon{\c{c}}alves, S. C.",
          affiliation = "{Department of Biophysics and Biometry Rio de Janeiro State 
                         University ( LARAMG/UERJ)} and Departamento de Geoquimica, 
                         Universidade Fluminense and Gradutate Program in Environmental 
                         Management , Centro Universit{\'a}rio Positivo - UnicemP and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Center for 
                         Climate Systems Research} and {} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                title = "Sources and transport of urban and biomass burning aerosol black 
                         carbon at the South-West Atlantic coast",
              journal = "Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry",
                 year = "2007",
               volume = "56",
               number = "3",
                pages = "225--238",
                month = "april",
                 note = "{DOI 10.1007/s10874-006-9052-8}",
             keywords = "black carbon, South-West Atlantic, Antartic Penisula, back 
                         trajectories, GCM.",
             abstract = "The total extent of the atmospheric impacts associated to the 
                         aerosol black carbon (BC) emissions from South America is not 
                         completed described. This work presents results of BC monitored 
                         during three scientific expeditions (2002, 2003 and 2004) on board 
                         of a Brazilian oceanographic vessel Ary Rongel that covered the 
                         South-West Atlantic coast between 22-62 degrees S. This 
                         latitudinal band encloses major urban regions of South America and 
                         the outflow region of the SACZ (South Atlantic Convergent Zone), 
                         which is an important mechanism of advective transport of heat, 
                         moisture, minor gases and aerosols from the South America 
                         continental land to the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results 
                         showed that aerosol BC enhanced concentrations from 
                         urban/industrial origin can be transported to the South-West 
                         Atlantic Ocean due to the migration of sub-polar fronts that 
                         frequently reach tropical/subtropical regions. Despite the 
                         decrease of aerosol BC concentrations southwards (from similar to 
                         1,200 ng m(-3) at latitude 22 degrees S to similar to 10 ng m(-3) 
                         at latitude 62 degrees S), several observed peak events were 
                         attributed to regional urban activities. Most of such events could 
                         be explained by the use of air mass back trajectories analysis. In 
                         addition, a global model simulation is presented (Goddard 
                         Institute for Space Studies - GISS GCM BC simulation) to explore 
                         the origins of aerosol BC in the South-West Atlantic. The model 
                         allowed isolating the biomass emissions from South America and 
                         Africa and industrial (non-biomass) pollution from other regions 
                         of the globe. This model suggests that the apportionment of about 
                         half of the aerosol BC at the South-West Atlantic may derive from 
                         South American biomass burning.",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
                 issn = "0167-7764",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "evangelistaH.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"