author = "Christian, Ted J. and Yokelson, Robert J. and Carvalho 
                         J{\'u}nior, Jo{\~a}o Andrade and Griffith, David W. T. and 
                         Alvarado, Ernesto C. and Santos, Jos{\'e} Carlos and Soares Neto, 
                         Tur{\'{\i}}bio Gomes and Gurgel Veras, Carlos Alberto and Hao, 
                         Wei Min",
          affiliation = "{University of Montana} and {University of Montana} and {Faculdade 
                         de Engenharia de Guaratinguet{\'a}} and {University of 
                         Wollongong} and {University of Washington} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de 
                         Bras{\'{\i}}lia} and {Fire Sciences Laboratory}",
                title = "The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: trace gases 
                         emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture 
                         fires in Brazil",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research",
                 year = "2007",
               volume = "112",
               number = "D18308",
                pages = "1--14",
             abstract = "ABSTRACT: Earlier work showed that Amazonian biomass burning 
                         produces both lofted and initially unlofted emissions in large 
                         amounts. A mobile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) 
                         measured the unlofted emissions of 17 trace gases from residual 
                         smoldering combustion (RSC) of logs as part of the Tropical Forest 
                         and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) during the 2004 Amazonian 
                         dry season. The RSC emissions were highly variable and the few 
                         earlier RSC measurements lay near the high end of combustion 
                         efficiency observed in this study. Fuel consumption by RSC was 5% 
                         of total for a planned deforestation fire. Much regional RSC 
                         probably occurs in the residual woody debris burned during pasture 
                         maintenance fires. RSC could increase estimated total fire 
                         emissions for the Amazon region by 2050% for several important 
                         VOC. FTIR emissions measurements of burning dung (in a pasture) 
                         showed high emission ratios for acetic acid and ammonia to CO (6.6 
                          3.4% and 8.9  2.1%). Large emissions of nitrogen containing 
                         trace gases from burning dung and crop waste could mean that 
                         biomass burning in India produces more particle mass than 
                         previously assumed. Measurements of late-stage kiln emissions 
                         suggested that VOC/CO may increase as carbonization is extended. A 
                         cook stove emitted many VOC and NH3 far outside the range observed 
                         for open wood cooking fires. Enclosed/vented cooking stoves may 
                         change the chemistry of the smoke that is emitted.",
                 issn = "0148-0227 and 2156-2202",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "tropical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"