author = "Fritts, D. C. and Vadas, S. L. and Riggin, D. M. and Abdu, 
                         Mangalathayil Ali and Batista, Inez Staciarini and Takahashi, 
                         Hisao and Medeiros, A. and Kamalabadi, F. and Liu, H. L. and 
                         Fejer, B. G. and Taylor, M. J.",
          affiliation = "{NorthWest Research Associates} and {NorthWest Research 
                         Associates} and {NorthWest Research Associates} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de Campina Grande} and 
                         {University of Illinois} and {National Center for Atmospheric 
                         research} and {Utah State University} and {Utah State 
                title = "Gravity wave and tidal influences on equatorial spread F based on 
                         observations during the Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx)",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2008",
               volume = "26",
               number = "11",
                pages = "3235--3252",
             abstract = "The Spread F Experiment, or SpreadFEx, was performed from 
                         September to November 2005 to define the potential role of neutral 
                         atmosphere dynamics, primarily gravity waves propagating upward 
                         from the lower atmosphere, in seeding equatorial spread F (ESF) 
                         and plasma bubbles extending to higher altitudes. A description of 
                         the SpreadFEx campaign motivations, goals, instrumentation, and 
                         structure, and an overview of the results presented in this 
                         special issue, are provided by Fritts et al. (2008a). The various 
                         analyses of neutral atmosphere and ionosphere dynamics and 
                         structure described in this special issue provide enticing 
                         evidence of gravity waves arising from deep convection in plasma 
                         bubble seeding at the bottomside F layer. Our purpose here is to 
                         employ these results to estimate gravity wave characteristics at 
                         the bottomside F layer, and to assess their possible contributions 
                         to optimal seeding conditions for ESF and plasma instability 
                         growth rates. We also assess expected tidal influences on the 
                         environment in which plasma bubble seeding occurs, given their 
                         apparent large wind and temperature amplitudes at these altitudes. 
                         We conclude 1) that gravity waves can achieve large amplitudes at 
                         the bottomside F layer, 2) that tidal winds likely control the 
                         orientations of the gravity waves that attain the highest 
                         altitudes and have the greatest effects, 3) that the favored 
                         gravity wave orientations enhance most or all of the parameters 
                         influencing plasma instability growth rates, and 4) that gravity 
                         wave and tidal structures acting together have an even greater 
                         potential impact on plasma instability growth rates and plasma 
                         bubble seeding..",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "gravity wave.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 jan. 2021"