author = "Vadas, S. L. and Taylor, M. J. and Pautet, P. D. and Stamus, P. A. 
                         and Fritss, D. C. and Liu, H. L. and Sabbas, Fernanda Tavares 
                         S{\~a}o and Rampinelli, V. T. and Batista, Paulo Prado and 
                         Takahashi, Hisao",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Convection: the likely source of the medium-scale gravity waves 
                         observed in the OH airglow layer near Brasilia, Brazil, during the 
                         SpreadFEx campaign",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2009",
               volume = "27",
               number = "1",
                pages = "231--259",
             keywords = "Atmospheric composition and structure, Airglow and aurora, General 
                         or miscellaneous.",
             abstract = "Six medium-scale gravity waves (GWs) with horizontal wavelengths 
                         of lambda(H) = 60-160 km were detected on four nights by Taylor et 
                         al. (2009) in the OH airglow layer near Brasilia, at 15 degrees S, 
                         47 degrees W, during the Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx) in Brazil 
                         in 2005. We reverse and forward ray trace these GWs to the 
                         tropopause and into the thermosphere using a ray trace model which 
                         includes thermospheric dissipation. We identify the convective 
                         plumes, convective clusters, and convective regions which may have 
                         generated these GWs. We find that deep convection is the highly 
                         likely source of four of these GWs. We pinpoint the specific deep 
                         convective plumes which likely excited two of these GWs on the 
                         nights of 30 September and 1 October. On these nights, the source 
                         location/time uncertainties were small and deep convection was 
                         sporadic near the modeled source locations. We locate the regions 
                         containing deep convective plumes and clusters which likely 
                         excited the other two GWs. The last 2 GWs were probably also 
                         excited from deep convection; however, they must have been ducted 
                         similar to 500-700 km if so. Two of the GWs were likely 
                         downwards-propagating initially (after which they reflected 
                         upwards from the Earth's surface), while one of the GWs was likely 
                         upwards-propagating initially from the convective plume/cluster. 
                         We also estimate the amplitudes and vertical scales of these waves 
                         at the tropopause, and compare their scales with those from a 
                         simple, linear convection model. Finally, we calculate each GW's 
                         dissipation altitude, location, and amplitude. We find that the 
                         dissipation altitude depends sensitively on the winds at and above 
                         the OH layer. We also find that several of these GWs may have 
                         penetrated to high enough altitudes to potentially seed equatorial 
                         spread F (ESF) if located somewhat farther from the magnetic 
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Convection the likely source of the medium-scale gravity 
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"