author = "Nobre, Paulo and Malagutti, Marta and Urbano, Domingos and 
                         Almeida, Roberto de and Giarolla, Emanuel",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Amazon deforestation and climate change in a coupled model 
              journal = "Journal of Climate",
                 year = "2009",
               volume = "22",
               number = "21",
                pages = "5686--5697",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "general-circulation models, tropical deforestation, equatorial 
                         atlantic, sea-surface, parameterization, ocean, wind, impacts.",
             abstract = "The impacts of Amazon deforestation on climate change are 
                         investigated through the use of twin numerical experiments with an 
                         Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) with prescribed 
                         global sea surface temperature and the same AGCM coupled to an 
                         ocean GCM over the global-tropics (CGCM). An ensemble approach is 
                         adopted, with ten member ensemble-averages of a control simulation 
                         compared with perturbed simulations for three scenarios of Amazon 
                         deforestation. The latest 20 years of simulation from each 
                         experiment are analyzed. Local surface warming and rainfall 
                         reduction are simulated by both models over the Amazon basin, with 
                         the coupled model presenting rainfall reduction that is nearly 60% 
                         larger compared to its control run than those obtained by the 
                         AGCM. The results also indicated that both the fraction of the 
                         deforested area and the spatial continuity of vegetated area might 
                         be important for modulating global climate variability and change. 
                         Additionally, significant remote atmospheric responses to Amazon 
                         deforestation scenarios are detectable for the coupled 
                         simulations, which revealed global ocean and atmosphere 
                         circulation changes conducive to enhanced ocean-atmosphere 
                         variability over the Pacific Ocean. This, in turn, is interpreted 
                         as a manifestation of enhanced El Niņo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 
                         activity over the Pacific and a positive feedback contributing to 
                         the extra rainfall reduction over the Amazon on the coupled 
                  doi = "10.1175/2009JCLI2757.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2757.1",
                 issn = "0894-8755",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "amazon.pdf",
                  url = "DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2757.1",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"