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@InProceedings{MenezesCoMaOlVaSi:2010:ClInSo,
               author = "Menezes, Otac{\'{\i}}lio Leandro and Costa, Alexandre Araujo and 
                         Martins, E P and Oliveira, J L and Vasconcelos J{\'u}nior, 
                         Francisco D and Silveira, Cleiton D",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         Departamento de F{\'{\i}}sica, UECE, Fortaleza, Brazil and 
                         FUNCEME, Fortaleza, Brazil and FUNCEME, Fortaleza, Brazil and 
                         FUNCEME, Fortaleza, Brazil and FUNCEME, Fortaleza, Brazil",
                title = "Climatology of the incoming solar radiation at ground level over 
                         Northeast Brazil using atmospheric model",
            booktitle = "Abstracts...",
                 year = "2010",
         organization = "The Meeting of the Americas.",
             keywords = "Climatology.",
             abstract = "The use of renewable energies, like solar, wind power and biomass 
                         is growing significantly, and solar energy, in particular, is 
                         abundantly available in Northeast Brazil. A precise knowledge of 
                         the incoming solar radiation and its interannual variability is of 
                         great importance for energy planning in Brazil, as it serves as a 
                         basis for the development of projects of photovoltaic power plants 
                         and the use of solar energy through the most diverse technologies. 
                         This work presents a 46-year climatology of surface solar incoming 
                         radiation over Northeast Brazil, based on a 15-member set of 
                         Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS 6.0) runs forced by 
                         ECHAM 4.5 AMIP boundary conditions. A model output correction 
                         scheme was used to reduce model errors, using data from the 
                         Cear{\'a} State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources 
                         (FUNCEME) meteorological stations. RAMS simulations were performed 
                         using a 100x100 grid points with a 30 km horizontal spacing. The 
                         vertical grid has 50 levels with a variable resolution. Radiative 
                         transfer was represented using Chen-Cotton parameterization (1983) 
                         for both shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. The model 
                         results (including the ensemble mean) shows an overestimation of 
                         the incoming solar radiation, probably because of a poor 
                         representation of the cloud processes at the 30km scale. Bias and 
                         range errors were removed using a simple linear regression for the 
                         period in which observed data are available (August 2004 to 
                         December 2008). The correlation between the corrected modeled 
                         monthly data and the observations is 0.91 (ensemble mean). Model 
                         spread is relatively small, with maximum differences, among 
                         individual members, on the order of 25 W/m^2 for the annual mean. 
                         As expected, the largest amount of incoming solar radiation over 
                         Northeast Brazil occurs in the dry season, especially during the 
                         Southern hemisphere spring.",
  conference-location = "Foz do Igua{\c{c}}u, BR",
      conference-year = "08-12 aug 2010",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"
}


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