author = "Garcia, S{\^a}mia R. and Kayano, Mary Toshie",
          affiliation = "Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Instituto de Recursos Naturais, 
                         Itajuba, MG, Brazil and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Moisture and heat budgets associated with the South American 
                         monsoon system and the Atlantic ITCZ",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2010",
               volume = "31",
               number = "149",
                pages = "2154--2167",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "South American monsoon, dry, wet seasons, heat, moisture 
             abstract = "Moisture and heat budgets in selected areas of the South American 
                         monsoon system (SAMS) and the equatorial Atlantic are examined for 
                         the 19792006 period. These areas are the Central Amazon (CAM), 
                         western Central Brazil (WCB), South Atlantic convergence zone 
                         (SACZ) and the Atlantic inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). 
                         The moisture and heat budget terms are calculated using daily 
                         reanalyzed data, and filtered for the 0.41.2 year scale. Analyses 
                         are based on the correlation maps between these terms and the 
                         expansion coefficient of the SAMS mode, previously identified. The 
                         vertical structures of the moisture and heat budget terms are 
                         discussed and allow us to examine the thermodynamic reasoning of 
                         the SAMS relationship with the Atlantic ITCZ. Important 
                         differences in the moisture and heat budgets have been found among 
                         the analyzed areas. Except for the horizontal advection of q and 
                         T, indications of a wet and dry season appear in the anomalies of 
                         other terms 4 pentads earlier in the WCB than in the CAM. The SAMS 
                         and the ITCZ relate to each other through the moisture and heat 
                         budgets. A time lag of approximately 8 pentads is noted for the 
                         moisture sink (source) and heat source (sink) between the CAM and 
                         ITCZ regions during the wet (dry) season of both regions. Indeed, 
                         the largest negative (positive) values of the residue term and the 
                         largest positive (negative) values of the diabatic term occur at 
                         pentad 12 (44) for the CAM and at pentad 20 (52) for the ITCZ. The 
                         results here provide observational support to the relationship 
                         between the SAMS and the Atlantic ITCZ. Copyright  2010 Royal 
                         Meteorological Society.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.2221",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.2221",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Garcia_Moisture.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"