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@Article{SahaiFJACKHPGAB:2011:StIoFr,
               author = "Sahai, Y. and Fagundes, P. R. and Jesus, R. de and Abreu, A. J. de 
                         and Crowley, G. and Kikuchi, T. and Huang, C. -S. and Pillat, V. 
                         G. and Guarnieri, F. L. and Abalde, J. R. and Bittencourt, J. A.",
          affiliation = "Univ Vale Paraiba UNIVAP, Dept Phys \& Astron, Sao Jose Dos 
                         Campos, SP, Brazil and Department of Physics and Astronomy, 
                         Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} Dos 
                         Campos, SP, Brazil and Univ Vale Paraiba UNIVAP, Dept Phys \& 
                         Astron, Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil and Department of Physics 
                         and Astronomy, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), S{\~a}o 
                         Jos{\'e} Dos Campos, SP, Brazil and Atmospheric \& Space 
                         Technology Research Associates (ASTRA) LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA 
                         and STELAB, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 
                         464-8601, Japan and Institute of Scientific Research, Boston 
                         College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA and Department of Physics and 
                         Astronomy, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), S{\~a}o 
                         Jos{\'e} Dos Campos, SP, Brazil and Vale Solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es em 
                         Energia (VSE), S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos, SP, Brazil and 
                         Department of Physics and Astronomy, Universidade do Vale do 
                         Paraiba (UNIVAP), S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} Dos Campos, SP, Brazil 
                         2Atmospheric \& Space Technology Research Associates (ASTRA) LLC, 
                         San Antonio, TX, USA and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American 
                         sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2011",
               volume = "29",
               number = "5",
                pages = "919--929",
             keywords = "Ionosphere, Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions, 
                         GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODEL, GPS PHASE FLUCTUATIONS, EQUATORIAL 
                         REGION, LOW LATITUDES, ELECTRODYNAMICS, SIMULATIONS, CONVECTION, 
                         VELOCITIES, MINIMUM, EQUINOX.",
             abstract = "In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the 
                         ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the 
                         intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005. This geomagnetic 
                         storm has been considered {"}anomalous{"} (minimum Dst reached - 
                         105 nT at 07: 00 UT on 22 January) because the main storm phase 
                         occurred during the northward excursion of the B(z) component of 
                         interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F(10.7) 
                         solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The 
                         F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5 
                         degrees N, 67.1 degrees W), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0 
                         degrees S, 76.8 degrees W), Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9 degrees S, 60.0 
                         degrees W), and Sao Jose dos Campos (SJC; 23.2 degrees S, 45.9 
                         degrees W), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically 
                         disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been 
                         analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show 
                         unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2) 
                         and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm 
                         sudden commencement (SSC). The observed variations in the F-region 
                         ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 
                         21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and 
                         differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 
                         25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) 
                         observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5 degrees S, 48.5 degrees W), Brasilia 
                         (BRAZ; 15.9 degrees S, 47.9 degrees W), Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 
                         22.3 degrees S, 51.4 degrees W), and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1 
                         degrees S, 51.1 degrees W), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS 
                         stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours 
                         after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and 
                         NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed 
                         at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at 
                         the near equatorial station (BELE) and enhancements in VTEC 
                         decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase 
                         fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin American 
                         sector during the post-sunset pre-reversal time in the geomagnetic 
                         disturbance (21 January). The disturbance dynamo electric field 
                         possibly resulted in downward drift of the F-region plasma and 
                         inhibited the formation of spread-F.",
                  doi = "10.5194/angeo-29-919-2011",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-29-919-2011",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "angeo-29-919-2011.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"
}


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