author = "Soares Neto, T. G and Carvalho, J. A. and Azevedo, R. G. and 
                         Oliveira, R. A. and Fidalgo, W. R. R. and Santos, J. C.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.003 and 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.003 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Laboratory evaluation of Amazon forest biomass burning emissions",
              journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
                 year = "2011",
               volume = "45",
               number = "39",
                pages = "7455--7461",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Amazon forest, Biomass burning, CO, CO2, Emission factors, 
                         Experimental fires, Hydrocarbons, NO, Alta Floresta, Amazon 
                         forests, Amazon region, Biomass burning, Biomass samples, Burn 
                         rates, Combustion efficiencies, Dry biomass, Emission factors, 
                         Experimental fires, Field experiment, Gas concentration, In-field, 
                         Laboratory evaluation, Laboratory experiments, Mato Grosso, 
                         Moisture content values, Native species, Total mass, Unburned 
                         hydrocarbons, Visual observations.",
             abstract = "Biomass samples representing Amazon forest native species were 
                         burned in laboratory experiments. These species were obtained in 
                         the deforestation arc, near the town of Alta Floresta, state of 
                         Mato Grosso, Brazil. Moisture content values obtained for twigs 
                         and pieces of sticks and leaves of the same species ranged from 9 
                         to 11%, in terms of mass of moisture per total mass. Gas 
                         concentrations were measured for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 
                         nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons. Temperatures, 
                         instantaneous burn rates, instantaneous combustion efficiencies 
                         and instantaneous emission factors for carbon dioxide and carbon 
                         monoxide were evaluated. Burning stages (flaming and smoldering) 
                         were identified by visual observation and correlation with the 
                         combustion efficiency. The average emission factors were 1565  
                         128, 50.3  17.1, 2.74  0.75, and 14.2  5.9 grams per kg of 
                         burned dry biomass, for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen 
                         oxides and unburned hydrocarbons, respectively. These results were 
                         compared to average emission factors of carbon dioxide, carbon 
                         monoxide, nitrogen oxides and methane determined in field 
                         experiments performed in the Amazon region. Agreement with results 
                         of field experiments was observed, especially for the flaming 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.003",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.003",
                 issn = "1352-2310",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"