author = "Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra and Ometto, Jean P. and Nobre, Carlos and 
                         Lapola, David M. and Almeida, Claudio and Vieira, Ima C. and 
                         Soares, Jo{\~a}o Vianei and Alvala, Regina and Saatchi, Sassan 
                         and Valeriano, Dalton and Castilla-Rubio, Juan C.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Laborat{\'o}rio de Ci{\^e}ncia 
                         do Sistema Terrestre (LabTerra), Department of Ecology, 
                         Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24A, 1515, 13506-900, 
                         Rio Claro, SP, Brazil and Amazon Regional Center (CRA), Brazilian 
                         Institute for Space Research (INPE), Parque de Ci{\^e}ncia e 
                         Tecnologia do Guam{\'a}, Bel{\'e}m, PA, Brazil and Museu 
                         Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG), Av. Magalh{\~a}es Barata 376 - 
                         S{\~a}o Braz, CEP: 66040-170, Bel{\'e}m, PA, Brazil and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and JET Propulsion 
                         Laboratory, NASA, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         Planetary Skin Institute, Silicon Valley, CA, USA",
                title = "Modeling the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of 
                         deforestation-driven carbon emissions: the INPE-EM framework 
                         applied to the Brazilian Amazon",
              journal = "Global Change Biology",
                 year = "2012",
               volume = "18",
               number = "11",
                pages = "33463366",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Amazonia, carbon emissions, deforestation, LUCC , REDD , secondary 
             abstract = "We present a generic spatially explicit modeling framework to 
                         estimate carbon emissions from deforestation (INPE-EM). The 
                         framework incorporates the temporal dynamics related to the 
                         deforestation process and accounts for the biophysical and 
                         socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region under study. We build an 
                         emission model for the Brazilian Amazon combining annual maps of 
                         new clearings, four maps of biomass and a set of alternative 
                         parameters based on the recent literature. The most important 
                         results are: (a) Using different biomass maps leads to large 
                         differences in estimates of emission; for the entire region of the 
                         Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, emission estimates of primary 
                         forest deforestation range from 0.21 to 0.26 PgCyr\−1. (b) 
                         Secondary vegetation growth presents a small impact on emission 
                         balance because of the short duration of secondary vegetation. In 
                         average, the balance is only 5% smaller than the primary forest 
                         deforestation emissions. (c) Deforestation rates decreased 
                         significantly in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, from 27 
                         Mkm2 in 2004 to 7 Mkm2 in 2010. INPE-EM process-based estimates 
                         reflect this decrease even though the agricultural frontier is 
                         moving to areas of higher biomass. The decrease is slower than a 
                         non-process instantaneous model would estimate as it considers 
                         residual emissions (slash, wood products and secondary 
                         vegetation). The average balance, considering all biomass, 
                         decreases from 0.28 in 2004 to 0.15 PgCyr\−1 in 2009; the 
                         non-process model estimates a decrease from 0.33 to 0.10 
                         PgCyr\−1. We conclude that the INPE-EM is a powerful tool 
                         for representing deforestation-driven carbon emissions. Biomass 
                         estimates are still the largest source of uncertainty in the 
                         effective use of this type of model for informing mechanisms such 
                         as REDD+. The results also indicate that efforts to reduce 
                         emissions should focus not only on controlling primary forest 
                         deforestation but also on creating incentives for the restoration 
                         of secondary forests.",
                  doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02782.x",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02782.x",
                 issn = "1354-1013",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"