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@Article{AndreaeABBFGLMWW:2012:CaMoRe,
               author = "Andreae, MO and Artaxo, P and Beck, V and Bela, M and Freitas, S 
                         and Gerbig, C and Longo, K and Munger, J. and Wiedemann, K. T. and 
                         Wofsy, S. C",
          affiliation = "Max Planck Inst Chem, Biogeochem Dept, Mainz, Germany and Univ Sao 
                         Paulo, Inst Phys, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Max Planck Inst 
                         Biogeochem, Jena, Germany and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, Jena, Germany and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Harvard 
                         Univ, Dept Earth \& Planetary Sci, Div Engn \& Appl Sci, 
                         Cambridge, MA 02138 USA and Harvard Univ, Dept Earth \& Planetary 
                         Sci, Div Engn \& Appl Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA and Harvard 
                         Univ, Dept Earth \& Planetary Sci, Div Engn \& Appl Sci, 
                         Cambridge, MA 02138 USA",
                title = "Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the 
                         Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2012",
               volume = "12",
               number = "13",
                pages = "6041--6065",
             keywords = "BIOMASS-BURNING EMISSIONS, BOUNDARY-LAYER EXPERIMENT, TROPICAL 
                         SOUTH-ATLANTIC, LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT, NORTH-AFRICAN DUST, SYSTEM 
                         CATT-BRAMS, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, PLANT MATTER, RAIN-FOREST, 
                         BRAZILIAN DEVELOPMENTS.",
             abstract = "We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide 
                         (CO) and aerosol particle number concentration (CN) made during 
                         the Balan double dagger o Atmosf,rico Regional de Carbono na 
                         Amazonia (BARCA) program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address 
                         the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other 
                         atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale 
                         Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) program. The experiment consisted of 
                         two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and 
                         May-June 2009 (BARCA-B), which covered the altitude range from the 
                         surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin. 
                         Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, 
                         SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late 
                         dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008) originated predominantly from 
                         the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season 
                         (BARCA-B, May 2009) low-level airmasses were dominated by 
                         northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of 
                         mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass 
                         burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much 
                         of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN 
                         concentrations approaching 10 000 cm(-3); the highest values were 
                         in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1-3 km. The 
                         Delta CN/Delta CO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning 
                         emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh 
                         emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good 
                         agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the 
                         need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes 
                         place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires. 
                         During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence 
                         for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations 
                         (300-500 cm(-3)) prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were 
                         enhanced by only similar to 10 ppb above the mixing line between 
                         Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. There was no detectable 
                         trend in CO with distance from the coast, but there was a small 
                         enhancement of CO in the boundary layer suggesting diffuse 
                         biogenic sources from photochemical degradation of biogenic 
                         volatile organic compounds or direct biological emission. 
                         Simulations of CO distributions during BARCA-A using a range of 
                         models yielded general agreement in spatial distribution and 
                         confirm the important contribution from biomass burning emissions, 
                         but the models evidence some systematic quantitative differences 
                         compared to observed CO concentrations. These mismatches appear to 
                         be related to problems with the accuracy of the global background 
                         fields, the role of vertical transport and biomass smoke injection 
                         height, the choice of model resolution, and reliability and 
                         temporal resolution of the emissions data base.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-12-6041-2012",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6041-2012",
                 issn = "1680-7316",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "acp-12-6041-2012.pdf",
                  url = "www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/6041/2012/",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"
}


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