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@Article{HerrmannFrei:2011:RoCoSy,
               author = "Herrmann, Valdir and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de",
          affiliation = "Climatempo Meteorology, S{\~a}o Paulo, SP, Brazil, 
                         valdir@climatempo.com.br. and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Atmospheric CO2 budget over the Amazon basin: the role of 
                         convective systems",
              journal = "Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia",
                 year = "2011",
               volume = "26",
               number = "4",
                pages = "529 - 540",
                month = "dez.",
             keywords = "Keywords: carbon budget, Amazon basin, convective transport, 
                         Balan{\c{c}}o de Carbono, Amaz{\^o}nia, Transporte Convectivo, 
                         Fluxos de CO2.",
             abstract = "This work studies the atmospheric CO2 budget in the Amazon basin, 
                         focusing on the role of shallow and deep convective systems. The 
                         vertical redistribution of CO2 is numerically simulated using an 
                         Eulerian transport model coupled to the Brazilian developments on 
                         the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS). The transport 
                         model includes grid-scale advection, diffusion in the PBL 
                         (Planetary Boundary Layer) and convective transport by sub-grid 
                         shallow and deep moist convection. In the simulation, the mass 
                         conservation equation is solved for six tracers, including or not 
                         the shallow and deep moist convection terms. The rectifier effect 
                         is also showed through simulation of the transport to the free 
                         troposphere of PBL air masses with low CO2 concentrations due to 
                         assimilation by vegetation during the afternoon, when both CO2 
                         fixation and convection are at their peak. The model is applied to 
                         simulate July 2001 with a 30 km grid resolution covering the 
                         northwest part of South America. We compare the model results with 
                         airborne CO2 observations collected in the Amazon basin during the 
                         2001 CLAIRE field campaign. , CO2 flux. RESUMO: Este trabalho 
                         apresenta um estudo do balan{\c{c}}o de CO2 na atmosfera da bacia 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica, enfocando o papel dos sistemas convectivos rasos e 
                         profundos. A redistribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o vertical de CO2 {\'e} 
                         simulada numericamente usando um modelo de transporte Euleriano 
                         acoplado ao modelo atmosf{\'e}rico BRAMS (Brazilian developments 
                         on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). O modelo de 
                         transporte inclui o termo de advec{\c{c}}{\~a}o, associado ao 
                         transporte resolvido, al{\'e}m dos termos de transporte, n{\~a}o 
                         resolvidos como difus{\~a}o turbulenta na CLP (Camada Limite 
                         Planet{\'a}ria), e transporte convectivo, associado a cumulus 
                         rasos e profundos. Na simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o utilizam-se seis 
                         tra{\c{c}}adores, onde a equa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         conserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o da massa {\'e} resolvida incluindo ou 
                         n{\~a}o o termo convectivo profundo ou o termo convectivo raso. O 
                         efeito retificador {\'e} descrito na simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         num{\'e}rica atrav{\'e}s do transporte para a troposfera livre 
                         de massas de ar da CLP com baixas concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         CO2, devido {\`a} atividade de assimila{\c{c}}{\~a}o realizada 
                         pela vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o no per{\'{\i}}odo diurno, quando os 
                         dois processos, fixa{\c{c}}{\~a}o e atividade convectiva 
                         est{\~a}o no {\'a}pice. A simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi realizada 
                         para o m{\^e}s de julho de 2001, com uma resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         30 km na grade, cobrindo a por{\c{c}}{\~a}o noroeste da 
                         Am{\'e}rica do Sul. Compara{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos resultados do 
                         modelo com dados de CO2 , observados na bacia Amaz{\^o}nica 
                         durante o experimento CLAIRE 2001, tamb{\'e}m s{\~a}o 
                         mostradas.",
                 issn = "0102-7786",
             language = "pt",
           targetfile = "a03v26n4.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"
}


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