author = "Silva, Leide Lili G. da and Alves, Luciano Guimar{\~a}es and 
                         T{\'o}th, Andr{\'a}s and Ueda, Mario",
          affiliation = "{Technological Faculty of Pindamonhangaba (FATEC)} and Department 
                         of Mechanical Engineering, S{\~a}o Paulo State University 
                         (UNESP), Guaratinguet{\'a}, Brazil and Institute of Materials and 
                         Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian 
                         Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "A study of the effect of nitrogen and air plasma immersion ion 
                         implantation treatments on the properties of carbon fiber",
              journal = "IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science",
                 year = "2011",
               volume = "39",
               number = "11",
                pages = "3067--3071",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "adhesion properties, carbon fibers (CFs), composites, plasma 
                         immersion ion implantation (PIII).",
             abstract = "In this paper, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatments 
                         of carbon fibers (CFs) are performed in order to induce 
                         modifications of chemical and physical properties of the CF 
                         surface aimed to improve the thermoplastic composite performance. 
                         The samples to be treated were immersed in nitrogen or air glow 
                         discharge plasma and pulsed at -3.0 kV for 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 
                         15.0 min. After PIII processing, the specimens were characterized 
                         by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, 
                         Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). 
                         Surface morphology of as-received CFs exhibited some scratches 
                         aligned along the fibers due to the fiber manufacturing process. 
                         After both treatments, these features became deeper, and also, a 
                         number of small particles nonuniformly distributed on the fiber 
                         surface can be observed. These particles are product of CF surface 
                         sputtering during the PIII treatment, which removes the epoxy 
                         layer that covers as-received samples. AFM analyses of CF samples 
                         treated with nitrogen depicted a large increase of the surface 
                         roughness (Rrms value approximately six times higher than that of 
                         the untreated sample). The increase of the roughness was also 
                         observed for samples treated by air PIII. Raman spectra of all 
                         samples presented the characteristic D-and G-bands at 
                         approximately 1355 and 1582 cm(-1), respectively. Analysis of the 
                         surface chemical composition provided by the XPS showed that 
                         nitrogen and oxygen are incorporated onto the surface. The polar 
                         radicals formed on the surface lead to increasing of the CF 
                         surface energy. Both the modification of surface roughness and the 
                         surface oxidation are expected to contribute for the enhancement 
                         of CF adhesion to the polymeric matrix used for composite 
                  doi = "10.1109/TPS.2011.2160293",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2011.2160293",
                 issn = "0093-3813",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "05960797.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"