author = "Borma, Laura De Simone and Nobre, Carlos Afonso and Cardoso, 
                title = "Response of the Amazon Tropical Forests to Deforestation, Climate, 
                         and Extremes, and the Occurrence of Drought and Fire",
            booktitle = "Climate Vulnerability: Understanding and Addressing Threats to 
                         Essential Resources [Hardcover]",
            publisher = "Academic Press",
                 year = "2013",
               editor = "Pielke, Roger A.",
                pages = "153163",
             keywords = "Amazon dieback, Amazon forest, biodiversity loss, climate change, 
                         deforestation, drought, ecosystem responses, fire, forest 
                         resilience, savannization.",
             abstract = "To the extent that many studies of the last two decades deepen the 
                         understanding about the Amazon tropical forest and more is known 
                         about the environmental services it offers, they also increased 
                         our level of awareness about the growing threats that this system 
                         has been subjected to. In addition to the process of uncontrolled 
                         expansion of the agriculture frontier, the Amazon, for its large 
                         scale, is an ecosystem highly susceptible to climate at regional 
                         and global scales. In this chapter we address issues related to 
                         environmental drivers of change in the Amazon: deforestation, 
                         climate, climate extremes, and fire. The goal is to present 
                         aspects of a synergistic action of these effects and the possible 
                         responses of Amazonian ecosystems to these drivers of change: (1) 
                         short-term responses as the mortality of some species 
                         (biodiversity loss), loss of living biomass with consequent 
                         influence on storage, and exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere 
                         to (2) long-term responses, such as savannization and Amazon 
                         dieback. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that the 
                         forest may show some degree of resilience to tolerate those 
                         impacts before starting to respond with degradation of the 
                         ecosystems. One of the challenges of Amazonian science today is to 
                         find out how close those drivers might be from exceeding tipping 
                         points of stability of the Amazonian system.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                  doi = "10.1016/B978-0-12-384703-4.00228-8",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384703-4.00228-8",
                 isbn = "978-0-12-384704-1",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Borma_response.pdf",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384703-4.00228-8",
               volume = "2 Vulnerability of Food Resources to Climate",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"