author = "Silva, Ligia Alves Da and Satyamurty, Prakki",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Evolution of the Lorenz energy cycle in the intertropical 
                         convergence zone in the South American sector of the Atlantic 
              journal = "Journal of Climate",
                 year = "2013",
               volume = "26",
               number = "10",
                pages = "3466–3481",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "intertropical convergence zone, atmospheric circulation, 
                         baroclinic flows, barotropic flows, large-scale motions.",
             abstract = "The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the South American 
                         sector of the Atlantic Ocean is identified using outgoing longwave 
                         radiation (OLR) data in order to investigate the evolution of the 
                         Lorenz energy cycle in the region dominated by this large-scale 
                         feature. The NCEP reanalysis data are utilized to calculate the 
                         zonal and eddy components (denoted by Z and E, respectively) of 
                         kinetic energy K and available potential energy A (i.e., KZ, KE, 
                         AZ, and AE) and their conversions, on a daily basis. A wavelet 
                         decomposition of the time series is performed to detect long-term 
                         cycles/trends in the Atlantic ITCZ region. This work also 
                         investigates trends in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level 
                         pressure (SLP) in the ITCZ region and connections between the ITCZ 
                         and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). A strong annual cycle in 
                         all the energy components with high peaks in austral summer is 
                         observed. Approximately 91% of the zonal component of energy is 
                         contained on decadal or longer time scales. The annual and 
                         semiannual variabilities are significant and the synoptic-scale 
                         variability is also present. The zonal component of kinetic energy 
                         KZ presents a decreasing trend during the last 28 years, which 
                         means a weakening of trade winds in the region studied. The values 
                         of KZ and AE are significantly higher during the period 1982/83, 
                         indicating that the intense El NiñoSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) 
                         and/or the El Chich{\'o}n eruption may have affected the 
                         circulation in the ITCZ region. The 28-yr mean energy conversion 
                         and generation terms are in general weaker than in the hemispheric 
                         calculations but the energy conversions proceed in the same sense 
                         as in the hemispheric situation.",
                  doi = "10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00426.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00426.1",
                 issn = "0894-8755",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Silva_evolution.pdf",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00426.1",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"