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@Article{WarnerHelBunSabOrv:2013:UPUpLi,
               author = "Warner, Tom A. and Helsdon Jr., John H. and Bunkers, Matthew J. 
                         and Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares and Orville, Richard E.",
          affiliation = "Department of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines 
                         and Technology and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, South 
                         Dakota School of Mines and Technology and NOAA/ National Weather 
                         Service, Rapid City, South Dakota and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Department of Atmospheric 
                         Sciences, NOAA/NWS Cooperative Institute for Applied 
                         Meteorological Studies, Texas A\&M University, College Station, 
                         Texas",
                title = "UPLIGHTS upward lightning triggering study",
              journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
                 year = "2013",
               volume = "94",
               number = "5",
                pages = "631--635",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "lightning, extraterrestrial atmospheres, meteorology.",
             abstract = "The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) is a three-year 
                         National Science Foundation-funded field project that is taking 
                         place in Rapid City, South Dakota, from April 2012 to September 
                         2014. Three upward flashes that occurred within a 20-min period 
                         were all triggered by a preceding +CG (cloud-to-ground) flash. In 
                         each case, in-cloud brightening following the +CG propagated 
                         toward the towers prior to upward leader initiation. Supporting 
                         electric-field data suggested that the approaching in-cloud 
                         brightening was horizontally propagating negative-leader 
                         development occurring during the +CG continuing current, and that 
                         the electric-field change created by the approaching negative 
                         leaders caused the initiation of upward positive leaders from the 
                         towers. Although none of the 10 towers had current sensing 
                         instrumentation, it is likely that a large majority of the upward 
                         flashes were upward negative lightning. The research may result in 
                         improved detection of upward lightning by lightning location 
                         systems.",
                  doi = "10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00252.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00252.1",
                 issn = "0003-0007",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "bams-d-11-00252.1.pdf",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00252.1",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"
}


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