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@PhDThesis{Avila:2015:SiDeEx,
               author = "Avila, Manuel Antonio Castro",
                title = "Simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es do desempenho do experimento mirax e estudo 
                         de 1E 1740.7-2942 com os sat{\'e}lites integral e XMM-Newton",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-02-26",
             keywords = "MIRAX, ru{\'{\i}}do de fundo, simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es, buracos 
                         negros, comptoniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o, background noise, computerized 
                         simulation, black holes, comptonization.",
             abstract = "O desenvolvimento de instrumentos para uso em Astrof{\'{\i}}sica 
                         de Altas Energias testemunhou grandes avan{\c{c}}os nos 
                         {\'u}ltimos 50 anos a partir da descoberta da primeira fonte de 
                         raios X fora do sistema solar. Um grande n{\'u}mero de 
                         miss{\~o}es a bordo de sat{\'e}lites foram desenvolvidas e 
                         colocadas em {\'o}rbita, permitindo estudar objetos associados a 
                         fontes emissoras de raios X e \$\gamma\$ que apresentam 
                         condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es f{\'{\i}}sicas extremas, 
                         imposs{\'{\i}}veis de se reproduzir em laborat{\'o}rios na 
                         Terra. Desenvolver estas miss{\~o}es requereu o desenvolvimento 
                         de novas tecnologias e t{\'e}cnicas de observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         principalmente nos campos de detectores e sistemas de imageamento. 
                         Para desenvolver novos instrumentos nesta {\'a}rea, precisa-se 
                         estudar, atrav{\'e}s de simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es, qual ser{\'a} o 
                         desempenho do instrumento atrav{\'e}s do modelamento de seu 
                         comportamento quando exposto aos diversos campos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o e part{\'{\i}}culas presentes no ambiente 
                         no qual ir{\'a} operar, especialmente em virtude do intenso 
                         ru{\'{\i}}do de fundo que est{\'a} sempre presente. Nessas 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es, {\'e} preciso construir um modelo de 
                         massa detalhado da instrumenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o e levar em 
                         considera{\c{c}}{\~a}o os diversos campos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o e part{\'{\i}}culas que est{\~a}o 
                         presentes no ambiente onde o instrumento ser{\'a} exposto. 
                         Tamb{\'e}m {\'e} crucial simular observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es das 
                         fontes que ser{\~a}o estudadas com o instrumento desenvolvido. 
                         Nesta tese de doutorado apresentamse resultados de 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es do comportamento instrumental da 
                         c{\^a}mera de raios X duros que est{\'a} sendo desenvolvida no 
                         {\^a}mbito da miss{\~a}o MIRAX. Utilizamos o conhecido pacote 
                         GEANT4 para calcular todas as intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         f{\'o}tons e part{\'{\i}}culas em um modelo de massa detalhado 
                         que foi constru{\'{\i}}do e usado como dado de entrada para o 
                         programa. Isso permitiu estudar em detalhe as 
                         contribui{\c{c}}{\~o}es individuais das principais componentes 
                         para o ru{\'{\i}}do de fundo que estar{\~a}o presentes nas 
                         medidas reais a serem efetuadas pelo instrumento. Consideramos as 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es de f{\'o}tons, pr{\'o}tons e 
                         n{\^e}utrons no sat{\'e}lite na {\'o}rbita baixa 
                         (\$\sim\$650 km), quase-equatorial e circular em que o MIRAX 
                         ir{\'a} operar. Os campos de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o foram modelados 
                         a partir de espectros de entrada obtidos da literatura. 
                         Implementamos a geometria completa do MIRAX e simulamos a 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de cada tipo de part{\'{\i}}cula com o 
                         instrumento, medindo a energia depositada pelas 
                         part{\'{\i}}culas que atingem o plano de detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o. 
                         Os resultados dessas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es est{\~a}o sendo 
                         usados para definir a melhor configura{\c{c}}{\~a}o de blindagem 
                         para a c{\^a}mera. Nesta tese tamb{\'e}m s{\~a}o apresentados 
                         resultados de an{\'a}lises espectrais e temporais da fonte 1E 
                         1740.7-2942, um candidato a buraco negro, usando dados dos 
                         observat{\'o}rios INTEGRAL e XMM-Newton. Para estudar o 
                         comportamento espectral e temporal de 1E 1740.7-2942, usamos 
                         observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es simult{\^a}neas (XMM-Newton + INTEGRAL) 
                         para tr{\^e}s {\'e}pocas, que permitiram estudar os estados 
                         espectrais da fonte e sua variabilidade. Utilizando dados do 
                         sat{\'e}lite INTEGRAL durante um per{\'{\i}}odo de 10 anos, 
                         analisamos tamb{\'e}m importantes varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es na 
                         emiss{\~a}o da fonte, caracterizando a emiss{\~a}o com 
                         diferentes modelos espectrais. ABSTRACT: Instrumental development 
                         in High Energy Astrophysics has undergone great advances in the 
                         last 50 years since the discovery of the first X-ray source 
                         outside the solar system. A large number of satellite instruments 
                         were developed and placed into orbit. These missions have enabled 
                         us to study objects, associated with sources emitting X and 
                         \$\gamma\$ rays, that show extreme physical conditions 
                         impossible to reproduce on Earth laboratories. Instrumentation for 
                         this kind of missions has required the development of new 
                         technologies and observation techniques, mainly in the areas of 
                         detectors and imaging systems. In order to develop new instruments 
                         in this area, it is extremely important to study in detail what 
                         will be the instrumental performance through simulations, 
                         especially due to the intense instrumental background that is 
                         always present. In these simulations, we have to build a detailed 
                         mass model of the instrumentation and take into account the 
                         several radiation and particle fields that are present at the 
                         environment where the instrument will be exposed to and operate. 
                         It is also crucial to simulate observations of sources that will 
                         be studied with the instrument. In this PhD thesis, we show 
                         simulation results of the behaviour of a hard X-ray imaging camera 
                         that is being develop in the scope of the MIRAX mission. We have 
                         used the well-known GEANT4 package to calculate all the 
                         interactions of photons and particles in a detailed mass model of 
                         the camera that we have built and used as input. This has enabled 
                         a detailed study of the individual contributions of the main 
                         background components that will be present in the instrument real 
                         measurements. We have considered the interactions of photons, 
                         protons and neutrons into the satellite in the expected 
                         lowaltitude (\$\sim\$650 km), near-equatorial, circular orbit 
                         in which MIRAX will operate. These radiation fields were modelled 
                         based on input spectra that we have obtained from the 
                         literature.We have implement the full geometry of the instrument 
                         and have simulated the interaction of every kind of particle with 
                         the materials, measuring the deposited energy of the both primary 
                         and secondary particles that hit the detection plane. The results 
                         of these simulations are currently being used to define the best 
                         shielding configuration for the camera. Also in this thesis, we 
                         present results of spectral and timing analysis of the source 1E 
                         1740.7-2942, a black hole candidate, using data from the INTEGRAL 
                         and XMM-Newton observatories. In order to study the spectral and 
                         timing behavior on 1E 1740.7-2942, we have used simultaneous 
                         observations (XMM-Newton + INTEGRAL) for three epochs, which 
                         enabled us to study the spectral states of the source and their 
                         variability. Also by using data from the INTEGRAL satellite over a 
                         period of 10 years, we have analysed important variations in the 
                         source emission and have characterized the emission using 
                         different spectral models.",
            committee = "Jablonski, Francisco Jos{\'e} (presidente) and Braga, Jo{\~a}o 
                         (orientador) and D'Amico, Fl{\'a}vio and Aguiar, Odylio Denys de 
                         and Dias, Marcos Perez and Abraham, Zulema",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Simulations of the mirax experiment performance and study on 1E 
                         1740.7-2942 with the integral and XMM-Newton satellites",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "141",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP7W/3HT5Q42",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP7W/3HT5Q42",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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