author = "Marengo, Jos{\'e} Ant{\^o}nio and Nobre, Carlos Augusto and 
                         Alves, Lincoln Muniz and Pesquero, Jos{\'e} Fernando and Vergara, 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Tipping points in climate modeling: Risk of Amazon Die-back and 
                         the JMA-MRI-GSM0130. 60 km - TL319L60 global climate change 
                 year = "2009",
         organization = "International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and 
                         Oceanography, 9.",
             keywords = "x.",
             abstract = "The Amazon region can be categorized as being at great risk from 
                         climate variability and change. The risk is not only due to 
                         projected climate change but also through synergistic interactions 
                         with existing threats not related to climate change, such as land 
                         learance, forest fragmentation and fire. Some model projections 
                         (Betts et al. 2004, Cox et al, 2004, Oyama and Nobre 2004, and 
                         Sitch et al 2008) exhibit over the next several decades a risk of 
                         an abrupt and irreversible replacement of forests by savannah with 
                         large-scale loss of biodiversity and loss of livelihoods for 
                         people in the region. This process is referred as the Die-back of 
                         the Amazon, and it represents a process simulated by few climate 
                         models, where after reaching a tipping point in climate (CO2 
                         concentration, air temperature) the forest stops behaving as a 
                         carbon sink and becomes a carbon source, and after that the forest 
                         enter in an state of collapse, being replaced by a savanna type 
                         vegetation (savannization). The main purpose of this study is to 
                         investigate and assess the risk associated with global warming and 
                         consequent climate change in the region and the feasibility of the 
                         die back of the Amazon and the savannization of the Amazon region, 
                         and to investigate if this possible scenario of future climate is 
                         depicted in the high resolution future climate change scenarios 
                         generated by the JAM-GSM0130-60km -TL319L60 climate model.",
  conference-location = "Melbourne Australia",
      conference-year = "9 - 13 Feb",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "tipping.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"