author = "Kouadio, Yves K. and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Servain, 
          affiliation = "{} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Tropical Atlantic Hurricanes, Easterly Waves, and West African 
                         Mesoscale Convective Systems",
              journal = "Advances in Meteorology",
                 year = "2010",
               volume = "2010",
               number = "284503",
                month = "fev",
             keywords = "hurricanes, tropical Atlantic.",
             abstract = "The relationship between tropical Atlantic hurricanes (Hs), 
                         atmospheric easterly waves (AEWs), and West African mesoscale 
                         convective systems (MCSs) is investigated. It points out 
                         atmospheric conditions over West Africa before hurricane 
                         formation. The analysis was performed for two periods, 
                         JuneNovember in 2004 and 2005, during which 12 hurricanes (seven 
                         in 2004, five in 2005) were selected. Using the AEW signature in 
                         the 700\ hPa vorticity, a backward trajectory was performed 
                         to the African coast, starting from the date and position of each 
                         hurricane, when and where it was catalogued as a tropical 
                         depression. At this step, using the Meteosat-7 satellite dataset, 
                         we selected all the MCSs around this time and region, and tracked 
                         them from their initiation until their dissipation. This procedure 
                         allowed us to relate each of the selected Hs with AEWs and a 
                         succession of MCSs that occurred a few times over West Africa 
                         before initiation of the hurricane. Finally, a dipole in sea 
                         surface temperature (SST) was observed with a positive SST anomaly 
                         within the region of H generation and a negative SST anomaly 
                         within the Gulf of Guinea. This SST anomaly dipole could 
                         contribute to enhance the continental convergence associated with 
                         the monsoon that impacts on the West African MCSs formation.",
                  doi = "10.1155/2010/284503",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/284503",
                 issn = "1687-9309",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "284503.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"