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@Article{AbreuSaFaBeJeGuPi:2010:ReIoFr,
               author = "Abreu, A. J. and Sahai, Y. and Fagundes, P. R. and Becker-Guedes, 
                         F. and Jesus, R. de and Guarnieri, F. L. and Pillat, V. G.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Vale 
                         do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba 
                         (UNIVAP)} and {Vale Solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es em Energia (VSE)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)}",
                title = "Response of the ionospheric F-region in the Brazilian sector 
                         during the super geomagnetic storm in April 2000 observed by GPS",
              journal = "Advances in Space Research",
                 year = "2010",
               volume = "45",
               number = "11",
                pages = "1322--1329",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Storms - Atmospheric electricity - Electric fields - Geomagnetism 
                         - Global positioning system - Ionosphere - Ionospheric measurement 
                         - Magnetosphere - Satellites.",
             abstract = "The response of the ionospheric F-region in the equatorial and low 
                         latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super 
                         geomagnetic storm on 0607 April 2000 has been studied in the 
                         present investigation. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst 
                         of \−288 nT at 0100 UT on 07 April. In this paper, we 
                         present vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase 
                         fluctuations (in TECU/min) from GPS observations obtained at 
                         Imperatriz (5.5S, 47.5W; IMPZ), Bras{\'{\i}}lia (15.9S, 
                         47.9W; BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (22.12S, 51.4W; UEPP), and 
                         Porto Alegre (30.1S, 51.1W; POAL) during the period 0508 April. 
                         Also, several GPS-based TEC maps are presented from the global GPS 
                         network, showing widespread and drastic TEC changes during the 
                         different phases of the geomagnetic storm. In addition, ion 
                         density measurements on-board the satellite Defense Meteorological 
                         Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 orbiting at an altitude of 840 km and 
                         the first Republic of China satellite (ROCSAT-1) orbiting at an 
                         altitude of 600 km are presented. The observations indicate that 
                         one of the orbits of the DMSP satellite is fairly close to the 4 
                         GPS stations and both the DMSP F15 ion-density plots and the phase 
                         fluctuations from GPS observations show no ionospheric 
                         irregularities in the Brazilian sector before 2358 UT on the night 
                         of 0607 April 2000. During the fast decrease of Dst on 06 April, 
                         there is a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric 
                         origin resulting in decrease of VTEC at IMPZ, an equatorial 
                         station and large increase in VTEC at POAL, a low latitude 
                         station. This resulted in strong phase fluctuations on the night 
                         of 0607 April, up to POAL. During the daytime on 07 April during 
                         the recovery phase, the VTEC observations show positive 
                         ionospheric storm at all the GPS stations, from IMPZ to POAL, and 
                         the effect increasing from IMPZ to POAL. This is possibly linked 
                         to the equatorward directed meridional wind. During the daytime on 
                         08 April (the recovery phase continues), the VTEC observations 
                         show very small negative ionospheric storm at IMPZ but the 
                         positive ionospheric storm effect is observed from BRAZ to POAL 
                         possibly linked to enhancement of the equatorial ionospheric 
                         anomaly.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.003",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.003",
                 issn = "0273-1177",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "response of the ionospheric.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"
}


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