author = "Santos, Ariane F. dos and Campos Velho, Haroldo F. de and Luz, 
                         Eduardo F. P. and Freitas, Saulo R. and Grell, Georg and Gan, 
                         Manoel A.",
          affiliation = "{} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Firefly optimization to determine the precipitation field on South 
              journal = "Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering",
                 year = "2013",
               volume = "21",
               number = "3",
                pages = "451--466",
             keywords = "cumulus representation, precipitation, BRAMS, firefly 
                         optimization, inverse problems.",
             abstract = "A model simulation of an intense rainfall associated with a case 
                         of South Atlantic Convergence Zone that occurred during 2124 
                         February 2004 using the Brazilian developments on the Regional 
                         Atmospheric Modelling System was performed. The convective 
                         parameterization scheme of Grell and De´ve´nyi was used to 
                         represent clouds of the sub-grid scale and their interaction with 
                         the large-scale environment. This method is a convective 
                         parameterization that can make use of a large variety of 
                         approaches previously introduced in earlier formulations, 
                         considering an ensemble of several hypotheses and closures. The 
                         rainfall was evaluated by six experiments, using different choices 
                         of rainfall parameterizations, providing six different simulated 
                         responses for the rainfall field. The sixth experiment ran with an 
                         average among five closures (ensemble mean). The purpose of this 
                         study was to generate a set of weights to compute a best 
                         combination of the ensemble members. This inverse problem of 
                         parameter estimation is solved as an optimization problem. The 
                         objective function was computed with the quadratic difference 
                         between five simulated precipitation fields and observation. The 
                         precipitation field estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring 
                         Mission satellite was used as observed data. Weights were obtained 
                         using the firefly optimization algorithm and it was included in 
                         the cumulus parameterization code to simulate precipitation. The 
                         results indicated the better skill of the model with the new 
                         methodology compared with the old ensemble mean calculation.",
                  doi = "10.1080/17415977.2012.712531",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17415977.2012.712531",
                 issn = "1741-5977 and 1741-5985",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "IPSE_2012_2013.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"