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@PhDThesis{Boggione:2014:AvReEs,
               author = "Boggione, Giovanni de Araujo",
                title = "Avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o da resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial de 
                         sensores {\'o}pticos orbitais",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2014",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2014-01-20",
             keywords = "resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial, Zernike, EIFOV, 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o, MTF, spatial resolution, Zernike, EIFOV, 
                         simulation, MTF.",
             abstract = "Uma forma de avaliar a qualidade espacial de sensores 
                         eletro-{\'o}pticos a bordo de sat{\'e}lites {\'e} por meio da 
                         Fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Espalhamento Pontual (\emph{PSF-Point 
                         Spread Function}), no dom{\'{\i}}nio do espa{\c{c}}o, ou 
                         Fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Transfer{\^e}ncia de Modula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         (\emph{MTF-Modulation Transfer Function}) no dom{\'{\i}}nio da 
                         frequ{\^e}ncia. Medidas da MTF ou PSF do sistema s{\~a}o 
                         realizadas antes do lan{\c{c}}amento, em laborat{\'o}rio, e 
                         tamb{\'e}m durante a vida {\'u}til do sat{\'e}lite para avaliar 
                         e monitorar o desempenho do sistema em {\'o}rbita. Estas 
                         fun{\c{c}}{\~o}es caracterizam a resposta espacial do sensor e 
                         por meio delas pode-se calcular a resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial 
                         efetiva, conhecida por EIFOV (\emph{Effective Instantaneous Field 
                         of View}), que leva em conta as distor{\c{c}}{\~o}es inseridas 
                         pelo sensor. Geralmente, a resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o efetiva do sensor 
                         {\'e} pior do que a resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o nominal especificada no 
                         projeto do sistema. Dentro deste contexto, esta tese apresenta um 
                         novo m{\'e}todo de estima{\c{c}}{\~a}o da MTF de sensores 
                         eletro-{\'o}pticos orbitais. Este m{\'e}todo {\'e} baseado nos 
                         Polin{\^o}mios de Zernike usados para avaliar a 
                         deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de sistemas {\'o}pticos e que podem 
                         assumir, praticamente, qualquer forma. Para validar o m{\'e}todo 
                         de estima{\c{c}}{\~a}o da MTF, v{\'a}rios experimentos foram 
                         realizados com dados dos sensores TM do Landsat-5 (TM-5), e CCD e 
                         HRC do CBERS-2B (Sat{\'e}lite Sino-Brasileiro de Recursos 
                         Terrestres). Os resultados mostraram que os valores de EIFOV para 
                         o TM-5 ficaram pr{\'o}ximos aos valores especificados no projeto, 
                         com varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o aproximada de 7,1\% e 6,3\% nas 
                         dire{\c{c}}{\~o}es \emph{Along-track e Across-track}, 
                         respectivamente. No caso das c{\^a}meras CCD e HRC, os valores de 
                         EIFOV foram piores do que os especificados no projeto, com 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o aproximada de 19,3\% e 103\% nas 
                         dire{\c{c}}{\~o}es \emph{Along-track} e \emph{Across-track}, 
                         respectivamente. Valores de MTF e EIFOV para o sensor 
                         \emph{Operational Land Imager} (OLI) do Landsat-8 tamb{\'e}m 
                         foram avaliados e os resultados mostraram que o desempenho do 
                         sistema est{\'a} conforme o especificado. Neste trabalho, um novo 
                         m{\'e}todo para simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o de imagens de sensores 
                         {\'o}pticos tamb{\'e}m {\'e} proposto. Para avaliar o 
                         m{\'e}todo de simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o proposto, imagens TM-5 e CCD 
                         foram simuladas a partir de imagens de melhor 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial e comparadas {\`a}s imagens reais, 
                         cujos resultados mostraram a efic{\'a}cia da metodologia. 
                         Finalmente, um estudo de caso {\'e} apresentado para mostrar como 
                         o m{\'e}todo de simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o pode ser usado em 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~o}es de sensoriamento remoto. Uma imagem da 
                         c{\^a}mera \emph{MUX} do CBERS-4 foi simulada, usando os 
                         par{\^a}metros especificados no projeto e classificada em quatro 
                         classes de cobertura do solo: vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o arb{\'o}rea, 
                         desmatamento, queimadas e corpos d\${'}\${\'a}gua. Os 
                         resultados sugerem que a c{\^a}mera MUX apresentar{\'a} melhor 
                         capacidade de discrimina{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre as classes, para a 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o analisada, quando comparada ao sensor TM-5. 
                         ABSTRACT: One way to characterize the quality of electro-optical 
                         imaging systems on board remote sensing satellites is through the 
                         Point Spread Function (PSF), in the space domain, or through the 
                         Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) in the frequency domain. 
                         Measurements of the camera MTF or PSF are made on the ground prior 
                         to launch as well as while the satellite is in orbit in order to 
                         evaluate and monitor the complete system performance. The MTF or 
                         PSF can be used to calculate the effective spatial resolution 
                         (EIFOV - Effective Instantaneous Field of View), which takes into 
                         account the sensor distortions that produces a blurring effect in 
                         the image. The effective spatial resolution is usually worse than 
                         the nominal resolution specified in the sensor project. Therefore, 
                         this thesis presents an innovative methodology to estimate the MTF 
                         of sensors on board satellites based on Zernike polynomials, which 
                         are used to evaluate the optical systems deformation. To validate 
                         the MTF estimation method several experiments were conducted with 
                         data acquired from TM of Landsat-5, and CCD and HRC from CBERS-2B 
                         (China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite). The results showed that 
                         the EIFOV values obtained for TM-Landsat-5 were close to the 
                         expected values with variations of 7.1\% and 6.3\%, in the 
                         \emph{Along-track and Across-track} directions, respectively. In 
                         the case of CCD-CBERS-2B and HRC-CBERS-2B, the EIFOV values were 
                         worse than those specified in the system project with variations 
                         of 19.3\% and 103\% in the \emph{Along-track and Across-track} 
                         directions, respectively. MTF and EIFOV values for the OLI 
                         (Operational Land Imager) on board Landsat-8 were also estimated, 
                         which are in conformity with the system project. This work also 
                         presents a new image simulation method for sensors on board 
                         satellite. To evaluate the proposed image simulation method, TM-5 
                         and CCD-CBERS-2B images were simulated from images acquired from 
                         higher spatial resolution systems and then compared to real 
                         images. Finally, a case study is presented to show how the image 
                         simulation can be used in remote sensing applications. A MUX image 
                         from CBERS-4 was simulated using the parameters specified in the 
                         system project and then classified into four land cover classes: 
                         woody vegetation, deforestation, fire, and water bodies. The 
                         results suggest that classification obtained from simulated MUX 
                         images was better than the one from TM-5 images in terms of 
                         discrimination among the classes.",
            committee = "Epiphanio, Jos{\'e} Carlos Neves (presidente) and Fonseca, Leila 
                         Maria Garcia (orientadora) and Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio Jorge 
                         (orientador) and Ferreira, Nilson Clementino and Puig, Salvador 
                         Bosch",
         englishtitle = "Evaluation of spatial resolution of optical sensors",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "157",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3FTJFGE",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3FTJFGE",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"
}


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