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@PhDThesis{Hartwig:2014:MiN4Se,
               author = "Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo",
                title = "Monitoramento de taludes de minera{\c{c}}{\~a}o por 
                         interferometria diferencial com dados TerraSAR-X na Amaz{\^o}nia: 
                         Mina de N4W, Serra de Caraj{\'a}s, Par{\'a}, Brasil",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2014",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2014-05-20",
             keywords = "DInSAR, IPTA, InSAR, monitoramento de taludes de 
                         minera{\c{c}}{\~a}o, mina de ferro de N4E , Serra de 
                         Caraj{\'a}s, DInSAR, IPTA, InSAR, mine slope monitoring, N4E iron 
                         mine, Caraj{\'a}s Mountain Range.",
             abstract = "Taludes altos de minera{\c{c}}{\~a}o est{\~a}o intrinsicamente 
                         sujeitos a instabiliza{\c{c}}{\~o}es, oferecendo riscos {\`a} 
                         seguran{\c{c}}a de trabalhadores e equipamentos, podendo culminar 
                         na interrup{\c{c}}{\~a}o moment{\^a}nea das atividades de lavra 
                         e levar a preju{\'{\i}}zos financeiros. Tradicionalmente, como 
                         medidas de preven{\c{c}}{\~a}o e de planejamento, s{\~a}o 
                         utilizadas t{\'e}cnicas geot{\'e}cnicas de monitoramento 
                         \emph{in situ} de elevada precis{\~a}o. No entanto, estes 
                         m{\'e}todos apresentam desvantagens operacionais e 
                         econ{\^o}micas, como o alto custo frente {\`a} dimens{\~a}o da 
                         {\'a}rea monitorada. Neste sentido, a t{\'e}cnica de 
                         detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o remota por Interferometria de Radar de 
                         Abertura Sint{\'e}tica (InSAR) representa uma alternativa 
                         poderosa, pois propicia obter uma vis{\~a}o sin{\'o}ptica da 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o e do estado de atividade de 
                         deforma{\c{c}}{\~o}es superficiais de vastas {\'a}reas, na 
                         escala de precis{\~a}o de mil{\'{\i}}metros. Esta tecnologia, 
                         que utiliza a informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de fase de imagens complexas 
                         de radar adquiridas em diferentes {\'e}pocas, vem sendo utilizada 
                         com sucesso em muitas {\'a}reas das ci{\^e}ncias da terra e 
                         ambiental. Todavia, ainda n{\~a}o h{\'a} registros de sua 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o em mina ativa {\`a} c{\'e}u aberto e em 
                         clima tropical {\'u}mido. Apesar de n{\~a}o terem causado danos 
                         materiais ou econ{\^o}micos at{\'e} o momento, 
                         instabiliza{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram registradas ao longo dos 
                         {\'u}ltimos anos nos taludes de uma das maiores minas de ferro do 
                         pa{\'{\i}}s, a de N4W, localizada a sudoeste do Estado do 
                         Par{\'a}. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de 
                         detectar e monitorar poss{\'{\i}}veis deslocamentos nos taludes 
                         da Mina de N4W e seu entorno. Para tanto, foram processadas um 
                         conjunto de 33 imagens do sat{\'e}lite TerraSAR-X, adquiridas em 
                         {\'o}rbita ascendente, em modo \emph{StripMap}, no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo compreendido entre mar{\c{c}}o de 2012 e abril 
                         de 2013. As imagens foram processadas com base em duas abordagens 
                         interferom{\'e}tricas: DInSAR (Interferometria SAR Diferencial) e 
                         PSI (Interferometria por Espalhadores Persistentes). Em 
                         fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o da sazonalidade clim{\'a}tica anual da 
                         regi{\~a}o, dividiu-se as imagens em dois conjuntos: seco e 
                         chuvoso. Com intuito de se compreender os deslocamentos 
                         detectados, os resultados foram verificados em campo e comparados 
                         com mapas litoestruturais e geomec{\^a}nicos, dados 
                         geot{\'e}cnicos, de produ{\c{c}}{\~a}o e pluviom{\'e}tricos. 
                         Os resultados mostraram que a Mina de N4W e seu entorno 
                         encontram-se est{\'a}veis para o per{\'{\i}}odo de 
                         aquisi{\c{c}}{\~a}o das imagens, o que vem sendo confirmado 
                         at{\'e} o presente momento pela equipe residente de geotecnia da 
                         empresa Vale S.A.. As principais diferen{\c{c}}as nos resultados 
                         referentes aos per{\'{\i}}odos seco e chuvoso foram a magnitude 
                         dos deslocamentos e a {\'a}rea de cobertura, que se mostraram 
                         maiores para o per{\'{\i}}odo seco (Mar{\c{c}}o a Setembro de 
                         2012). Os artefatos atmosf{\'e}ricos determinados com a abordagem 
                         PSI foram similares em magnitude nos per{\'{\i}}odos seco e 
                         chuvoso, n{\~a}o ultrapassando \$\pm \$10 mm em cada um dos 
                         interferogramas diferenciais. A presente pesquisa demonstrou pela 
                         primeira vez, a aplicabilidade da abordagem InSAR a partir de 
                         imagens TerraSAR-X, na detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o e monitoramento de 
                         deslocamentos de taludes de mina {\`a} c{\'e}u aberto ativa e em 
                         ambiente tropical {\'u}mido, abrindo grandes perspectivas de 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o desta tecnologia no pa{\'{\i}}s. ABSTRACT: 
                         High mining slopes are intrinsically subjected to instabilities, 
                         offering risks to the safety of workers and equipment, which may 
                         lead to momentary interruptions in mining activities and economic 
                         losses. Traditionally, terrestrial geotechnical monitoring 
                         techniques with high precision are used as measures to prevent 
                         accidents and for the mining planning. However, these classical 
                         approaches show operational and economic disadvantages, such as 
                         the high cost per unit of the monitored area. In this sense, the 
                         remote sensing technique by interferometric synthetic aperture 
                         radar (InSAR) represents a powerful alternative to classical 
                         methods, since it provides a synoptic view of the distribution and 
                         the state of activity of surface deformations over vast areas with 
                         the precision of millimeters. InSAR exploits the phase information 
                         of complex radar scenes acquired in different times, and has been 
                         successfully employed in many fields of earth and environmental 
                         sciences by researchers around the world. However, InSAR has not 
                         yet been employed in tropical regions and in active mining 
                         environments. Although slope instabilities have been recorded in 
                         the high slopes of the N4W Mine, one of the most important iron 
                         mines of Brazil, located in the southwestern portion of the State 
                         of Par{\'a}, they have caused neither material nor economic 
                         damages so far. In this sense, the aim of this thesis was the 
                         detection and monitoring of possible surface displacement 
                         affecting the slopes of the N4W iron Mine and its surroundings. 
                         For this purpose, I have used 33 StripMap SAR scenes of the 
                         TerraSAR-X satellite, acquired in ascending orbit track between 
                         March 2012 and April 2013. The scenes were processed based on two 
                         interferometric approaches: the DInSAR (Differential SAR 
                         Interferometry) and the PSI (Persistent Scatterers 
                         Interferometry). Due to the annual climate sazonality of the 
                         region, the scenes were divided in two sets: one for the dry 
                         season and the other for the wet season. With the purpose to 
                         understand the detected displacements, the results were checked in 
                         the field and compared to lithostructural and geomechanic maps, 
                         geotechnical data, rainfall records and annual mining production 
                         plans. The results have shown that most of the study area can be 
                         considered as stable in the period covered by the scenes. This 
                         result has been confirmed so far by the geotechnical team of Vale 
                         S.A. The main differences obtained in the dry and wet seasons were 
                         the magnitude of the displacements and the coverage of the 
                         results, which have shown to be more significant for the dry 
                         season (From March to September 2012). The atmospheric artifacts 
                         determined by the PSI approach where similar in magnitude for both 
                         seasons, not exceeding \$\pm\$ 10 mm in each of the 
                         differential interferograms. This study showed for the first time, 
                         the applicability of the InSAR technique using TerraSAR-X scenes 
                         in active open pit mine in tropical moist environment, opening 
                         great application prospects in the country.",
            committee = "Paradella, Waldir Renato (presidente/orientador) and Mura, 
                         Jos{\'e} Claudio (orientador) and Gama, F{\'a}bio Furlan and 
                         Souza Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins e and Miranda, Fernando Pellon 
                         de",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Monitoring of mining slopes by using differential interferometry 
                         with TerraSAR-X satellite data in the Amazon region: N4W mine, 
                         Caraj{\'a}s mountain range, Par{\'a} state, Brazil",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "268",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3G5LJSS",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3G5LJSS",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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