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@Article{AmaralCaCoSoDeLe:2014:ChChCo,
               author = "Amaral, Simone Sim{\~o}es and Carvalho Junior, Jo{\~a}o Andrade 
                         de and Costa, Maria Ang{\'e}lica Martins and Soares Neto, Turibio 
                         Gomes and Dellani, Rafael and Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini",
          affiliation = "Energy Department, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 
                         Guaratinguet{\'a} Campus, Brazil and Energy Department, 
                         Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Guaratinguet{\'a} Campus, 
                         Brazil and Lumber Industrial Engineering Department, Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Itapeva Campus, Brazil and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Lumber Industrial 
                         Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 
                         Itapeva Campus, Brazil and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: 
                         Chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and 
                         particulate matter emissions",
              journal = "Bioresource Technology",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "164",
                pages = "55--63",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "forest biomass, combustion, lignin content, PM2.5, gas 
                         emissions.",
             abstract = "Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were 
                         burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion 
                         characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2kg of 
                         Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) 
                         were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate 
                         matter smaller than 2.5žm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming 
                         and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified 
                         combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and 
                         concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to 
                         quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor 
                         were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a 
                         lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon 
                         biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be 
                         influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx 
                         and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.060",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.060",
                 issn = "0960-8524",
                label = "scopus 2014-05 AmaralCaCoNeDeLe:2014:ChChCo",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1-s2.0-S0960852414005653-main.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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