author = "Esp{\'{\i}}rito-Santo, Fernando D. B. and Keller, Michael M. and 
                         Linder, Ernst and Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C. and Pereira, 
                         Cleuton and Oliveira, Cleber G.",
          affiliation = "Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of 
                         New Hampshire and Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and 
                         Space, University of New Hampshire and Department of Mathematics 
                         and Statistics, University of New Hampshire and {EMBRAPA 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and {EMBRAPA Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Gap formation and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: 
                         Measurement using high-resolution optical remote sensing and 
                         studies in large forest plots",
              journal = "Plant Ecology \& Diversity",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "7",
               number = "1-2",
                pages = "305--318",
             keywords = "Amazon, canopy opening, coarse wood debris gaps, leaf area index 
                         natural disturbances, remote sensing, tropical forest, IKONOS.",
             abstract = "Background: The dynamics of gaps plays a role in the regimes of 
                         tree mortality, production of coarse woody debris (CWD) and the 
                         variability of light in the forest understory. Aims: To quantify 
                         the area affected by, and the carbon fluxes associated with, 
                         natural gap-phase disturbances in a tropical lowland evergreen 
                         rain forest by use of ground measurements and high-resolution 
                         satellite images. Methods: We surveyed two large forest inventory 
                         plots of 114 and 53 ha of the Tapaj{\'o}s National Forest (TNF) 
                         in the Brazilian Amazon during 2008 and 2009, respectively. We 
                         mapped all gaps and collected data on light availability, CWD 
                         stocks and tree mortality in the field. Gap location, canopy 
                         openness (CO) and leaf area index (LAI) estimated in the field 
                         were compared with two IKONOS-2 high-resolution satellite images 
                         acquired at approximately the time of the field measurements. 
                         Results: In the two large plots (167 ha total area) we found 96 
                         gaps. The gaps represented 1.42% of the total area and gaps 
                         <1-year-old accounted for 0.81% of the plot area. In TNF, the 
                         production of CWD in recent gaps was 0.76 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and the 
                         mean tree mortality was 2.38 stems ha-1 year-1. The area of gaps 
                         estimated using thresholds of light intensity measured by remote 
                         sensing optical instruments was twice as large as the gap areas 
                         measured on the ground. We found no significant correlation 
                         between spectral remote sensing images and CO or LAI, probably due 
                         to the high degree of shadow in the high-resolution satellite 
                         images. Conclusions: We present the first statistics of CWD 
                         production based on gap size in the tropical forest literature. 
                         Tree mortality and CWD flux and the forest floor light environment 
                         were closely related to gap area. However, less than 30% of the 
                         annual tree mortality and CWD flux was associated with gaps, and 
                         gaps were difficult to detect using remote sensing methods because 
                         of the high proportion of shadow in the images. These results 
                         highlight the need for permanent plots in long-term carbon 
                  doi = "10.1080/17550874.2013.795629",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2013.795629",
                 issn = "1755-0874",
                label = "scopus 2014-05 Esp{\'{\i}}rito-SantoKeLiOlPeOl:2014:MeUsHi",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"