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@Article{Espírito-SantoGKMSNJPLFPSDMLBFBABP:2014:SiFrNa,
               author = "Esp{\'{\i}}rito-Santo, Fernando D. B. and Gloor, Manuel and 
                         Keller, Michael and Malhi, Yadvinder and Saatchi, Sassan and 
                         Nelson, Bruce and Junior, Raimundo C. Oliveira and Pereira, 
                         Cleuton and Lloyd, Jon and Frolking, Steve and Palace, Michael and 
                         Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir and Duarte, Valdete and Mendoza, Abel 
                         Monteagudo and L{\'o}pez-Gonz{\'a}lez, Gabriela and Baker, Tim 
                         R. and Feldpausch, Ted R. and Brienen, Roel J. W. and Asner, 
                         Gregory P. and Boyd, Gregory S. and Phillips, Oliver L.",
          affiliation = "NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of 
                         Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, United States; Institute for the 
                         Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, 
                         Durham, NH 03824, United States and School of Geography, 
                         University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom and Institute 
                         for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New 
                         Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, United States; USDA Forest Service, 
                         International Institute of Tropical Forestry, San Juan 00926-1119, 
                         Puerto Rico; EMBRAPA Monitoramento Por Sat{\'e}lite, Campinas, 
                         Sao Paulo CEP 13070-115, Brazil and Environmental Change 
                         Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of 
                         Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, United Kingdom and NASA Jet Propulsion 
                         Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 
                         91109, United States and National Institute for Research in 
                         Amazonia (INPA), CP 478, Manaus, Amazonas 69011-970, Brazil and 
                         EMBRAPA Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental (CPATU), 
                         Santar{\'e}m-Par{\'a}-CEP-68035-110-C.P.-261, Brazil and 
                         Belterra, Par{\'a} CEP 68143-000, Brazil and School of Geography, 
                         University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; Centre for 
                         Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS), School 
                         of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, 
                         Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia and Institute for the Study of Earth, 
                         Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, 
                         United States and Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and 
                         Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, United 
                         States and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Jardin 
                         Botanico de Missouri, Oxapampa-19231-Pasco, Peru and School of 
                         Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom and 
                         School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United 
                         Kingdom and School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 
                         9JT, United Kingdom; College of Life and Environmental Sciences, 
                         University of Exeter, Rennes-Drive-Exeter-EX4-4RJ, United Kingdom 
                         and School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, 
                         United Kingdom and Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie 
                         Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, United States and 
                         School of Geography, University of Nottingham, 
                         University-Park-Nottingham-NG7-2RD, United Kingdom and School of 
                         Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom",
                title = "Size and frequency of natural forest disturbances and the Amazon 
                         forest carbon balance",
              journal = "Nature Communications",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "5",
               number = "3434",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "ccarbon, aboveground biomass, bioaccumulation, carbon balance, 
                         disturbance, forest inventory, frequency analysis, growth rate, 
                         landscape, mortality, numerical model, remote sensing, satellite 
                         data, satellite imagery, size, tropical forest, article, biomass, 
                         carbon balance, carbon cycle, carbon sink, forest, forest 
                         structure, growth rate, landscape, measurement, mortality, natural 
                         disaster, remote sensing, simulation, tree growth, tropical rain 
                         forest, Amazonia, Carbon, Forests.",
             abstract = "Forest inventory studies in the Amazon indicate a large 
                         terrestrial carbon sink. However, field plots may fail to 
                         represent forest mortality processes at landscape-scales of 
                         tropical forests. Here we characterize the frequency distribution 
                         of disturbance events in natural forests from 0.01 ha to 2,651 ha 
                         size throughout Amazonia using a novel combination of forest 
                         inventory, airborne lidar and satellite remote sensing data. We 
                         find that small-scale mortality events are responsible for 
                         aboveground biomass losses of ~1.7 Pg C y -1 over the entire 
                         Amazon region. We also find that intermediate-scale disturbances 
                         account for losses of ~0.2 Pg C y-1, and that the largest-scale 
                         disturbances as a result of blow-downs only account for losses of 
                         ~0.004 Pg C y-1. Simulation of growth and mortality indicates that 
                         even when all carbon losses from intermediate and large-scale 
                         disturbances are considered, these are outweighed by the net 
                         biomass accumulation by tree growth, supporting the inference of 
                         an Amazon carbon sink.",
                  doi = "10.1038/ncomms4434",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4434",
                 issn = "2041-1723",
                label = "scopus 2014-05 
                         Esp{\'{\i}}rito-SantoGKMSNJPLFPSDMLBFBABP:2014:SiFrNa",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ncomms4434.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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