author = "Santos, Luciana Cavalcanti Maia and Matos, Humberto Reis and 
                         Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara and Cunha-Lignon, Mar{\'{\i}}lia and 
                         Bitencourt, Marisa Dantas and Koedam, Nico and Dandouh-Guebas, 
          affiliation = "{Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Sergipe} and {Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de Sao 
                         Paulo (USP)} and {Vrije Universiteit Brussel} and {Universit{\'e} 
                         Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)}",
                title = "Anthropogenic activities on mangrove areas (Sao Francisco River 
                         Estuary, Brazil Northeast): A GIS-based analysis of CBERS and SPOT 
                         images to aid in local management",
              journal = "Ocean \& Coastal Management",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "89",
                pages = "39--50",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "anthropogenic activities, mangrove areas.",
             abstract = "In Brazil, despite the existence of various environmental laws to 
                         protect mangroves, this ecosystem has been affected by a variety 
                         of anthropogenic activities. The Sao Francisco River Estuary 
                         (SFRE, Brazil Northeast) comprises significant mangrove forests, 
                         important for human populations, and is included in an 
                         Environmental Protected Area of sustainable use which does not 
                         have a management plan. This work assessed and mapped 
                         anthropogenic activities on the mangroves of this estuary and 
                         provided a number of guidelines for a local management plan. 
                         Satellite images (SPOT 5 and CBERS 2B) of 2008 were processed and 
                         a land use/cover map (study area size: 192.4 km(2)) produced and 
                         verified by fieldwork. About 93\% (178.8 km(2)) of the study area 
                         is occupied by natural cover such as: sandy coastal vegetation 
                         (147.3 km(2), 77\%), mangroves (30.1 km(2), 15.7\%) and 
                         intertidal flats (1.4 km(2), 0.7\%), while 7\% (13.6 km(2)) is 
                         occupied by human activities as aquaculture (4.5 km(2), 2.4\%) 
                         and agriculture (9 km2, 4.7\%). These uses are spatially 
                         distributed within mangroves, accounting for approximately one 
                         quarter (7.8 km(2)) of its area, which may indicate the conversion 
                         of these forests. Shrimp farming is the main anthropogenic 
                         activity, occupying the highest area and occurring within the 
                         tallest Rhizophora mangle forests (tree height >15 m). We 
                         recommend that a management plan for the SFRE considers: the 
                         implementation of sustainable aquaculture practices (e.g. 
                         small-scale without deforestation of mangroves, use of native 
                         species, effluent treatment, socio-economic equity), strategies 
                         for the compliance of the laws regarding shrimp farming license 
                         and operation and support the creation of community-based 
                         cooperatives for the execution of sustainable aquaculture.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.12.010",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.12.010",
                 issn = "0964-5691 and 1873-524X",
                label = "isi 2014-05 MaiaSantosMaScCuBiKoDa:2014:GIAnCB",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1-s2.0-S0964569113003128-main.pdf",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.12.010",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"